Aircraft Manufacturers in the United Kingdom


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Click on each Name for more details

Popular Name Status
A
ADC ceased
Airspeed ceased
Armstrong-Whitworth ceased
Arrow closed
B
BAC – British Aircraft Corporation ceased
BAE SYSTEMS active
Boulton Paul ceased
Bristol ceased

Aerospatiale/BAC Concorde

Aircraft Profile
British Airways Concorde G-BOAA
(photo, not known)

Development

“Soon there will be only two kinds of airliner: Concorde, and all the rest”. So ran the copyline in press adverts during the early 1970s. The intention was to draw attention to Concorde’s imminent introduction into service, but thirty years later the prediction still holds true – Concorde is treated differently from all other airliners.

Concorde has always been different. It entered service amid huge controversy over rising development costs and possible environmental impact, went on to become the ultimate in prestige trans-Atlantic travel and then arose from a fiery grave to take to the skies once again.

The idea of a supersonic airliner was first conceived around the time that Britains’s pioneering Comet jet airliner ran into major problems. By the mid-1950s, military aircraft were routinely able to exceed Mach 1 in a short duration dash, but supersonic passenger travel would require sustained high speed for hours at a time, opening up a whole new set of technical challenges. It was clear that, if the technical issues could be overcome, the result would be a world-beating aircraft which would restore Britain’s lead in airliner design.

British aircraft companies began seriously examining the possibilities of a Supersonic Transport (SST) in 1955. To co-ordinate and encourage these project studies a join government-industry committee was formed in November 1956, called STAC (Supersonic Transport Aircraft Committee). STAC initiated the development of a number of aerodynamic research aircraft (BAC 221 and HP.115), and funded some 400 technical papers covering every conceivable aspect of SST design and operation. A final report was issued on 9 March 1959, recommending development of a Mach 1.2 100-seat medium-range (1500 miles) SST and a Mach 1.8 150-seat long-range (3000 miles) variant. A major conclusion was that Mach 2.2 was the upper limit for aircraft with aluminum alloy structure. The Bristol Aircraft Company had been a leading player in developing a workable aircraft configuration for STAC, producing several successive designs under the generic label Type 198. In 1959 further contracts were awarded to continue design studies and by January 1960 the Type 198 had evolved into a shape recognisable as an ancestor of Concorde. It featured a tail-less slender delta wing with a gentle curved leading edge, six engines in two groups of three in nacelles under the wing, and was to carry 136 passengers at Mach 1.8. A comparative study of a Mach 3 version (made of steel to withstand the increased air friction heating) was designated Type 213, but soon dropped as uneconomic.

During 1961 a less-ambitious scaled-down version of the latest Type 198 was studied in parallel, under the designation Type 223. This design was a 100-seater with only four engines but otherwise of similar configuration. In the meantime, Sud Aviation in France had been studying a 70/80 seat short-range (1500-1800 miles) Mach 2 SST to replace the Caravelle. Designed for use on European and African routes, the Super Caravelle, as it was known, looked very similar to the Type 223, but lacked a drooping nose. When BAC approached potential joint-venture partners in early 1961, (at government insistence due to the likely cost), Sud Aviation was the only one to give a positive response. The Americans were planning a Mach 3 SST and weren’t interested in BAC’s slower design. The first Anglo-French meeting was held at the June 1961 Paris Air Show, and after a further talks an intergovernment agreement was signed on 29 November 1962. Funding was to be shared equally between the two governments, with the industry partners being BAC and Sud Aviation (later Aerospatiale) for the airframe and Bristol Siddeley (later Rolls-Royce) and SNECMA for the engines. Initially the project was going to comprise two versions of the SST – a short/medium range aircraft and a heavier trans-Atlantic version, but the former was dropped after consultation with potential airline customers showed it to be non-viable.

In early 1965 the design was frozen and construction of two prototypes commenced. The industrial workshare was: BAC – nose, tail and engine installations; Sud Aviation (Aerospatiale) – wings, centre fuselage and landing gear. France had a larger airframe share because Britain had a greater share of the engine work – Bristol Siddeley on the Olympus engines and SNECMA on the exhaust system and afterburner. The infrastructure required to support this production effort was huge and included the transport of completed airframe sections between production sites, the construction of numerous full-size test rigs and the introduction of an ‘air bridge’ aircraft shuttling engineers daily between Filton and Toulouse to co-ordinate the development process. There was no precedent for Anglo-French collaboration on a major prestige industrial project, and lessons had to be learnt the hard way. At the same time, the original estimates for the programme costs were proving to be hopelessly optimistic and revised estimates were seriously undermined by the high inflation rates prevalent at the time.

The subtle and graceful external shape of Concorde hides a great many advanced engineering features. The wing is a masterpiece of aerodynamic shaping. The slender delta shape with an ogival (curved) leading edge was only arrived at after a huge amount of wind tunnel testing and reaches optimum efficiency at around Mach 2.2. Most of the fuel is stored in the wings, where it acts as a heat sink for the wing skin during prolonged supersonic flight. Fuel is also used to control the aircraft centre of gravity, to counter-act the rearward shift in the centre of lift as the aircraft goes supersonic. Fuel is pumped into trim tanks in the rear fuselage during acceleration and forward again during deceleration to subsonic speed. Computer controlled variable-area air intakes ensure that each engine receives an optimum air flow under all flight conditions. The nose of the aircraft can be hinged down 17.5 degrees to improve the view of the pilot while landing or taking-off, although in practice only 12.5 degrees is normally used.

By 1967, 74 options from 16 airlines had been obtained, including Pan Am and Air Canada. This good start gave great confidence in the future prospects for the project, with potential for 240 sales being forecast by 1978, when the American SST was expected to be available. These options were fully refundable and couldn’t be converted into contracts until guaranteed performance figures had been established by the flight test programme.

The first prototype (aircraft 001 F-WTSS) was rolled out at Toulouse on 11 December 1967, but extensive ground testing meant that it didn’t fly until 2 March 1969. The first British aircraft (002 G-BSST) flew a month later. The flight test programme proceeded smoothly without any major problems. In December 1971, the first pre-production aircraft (101) made its maiden flight. The pre-production aircraft featured a much improved visor design, with greater cockpit window area, a longer forward fuselage and extended tail. The flight test programme verified aircraft and systems performance under a very wide range of conditions, and included a substantial amount of work refining the operation of the computer-controlled engine intakes. This was followed by nearly 1000 hours of endurance flying over typical airline routes, using the first three production aircraft (201 to 203).

The first airlines to formally place firm orders were British Airways and Air France, who ordered a total of nine aircraft on 28 July 1972. Restrictions had been placed on over-land supersonic routes by various countries due to the expectation that frequent sonic booms would cause damage under the projected flightpath, and this had an adverse affect on potential sales. In fact, during the route proving trials, many complaints of sonic boom problems from affected countries turned out to have more to do with gaining increased access to Heathrow and Paris for national airlines than any actual damage. Vociferous protests over noise and air pollution from politically motivated pressure groups also generated a lot of adverse publicity for Concorde. However, the oil crisis sparked by the ‘Yom Kippur’ war of 1973 had a most devastating affect on sales. The soaring cost of fuel rendered Concorde completely uneconomic for all but state-subsidised airlines. No further orders were achieved and production ceased after 16 production aircraft, with 201 and 202 going into store and the remaining fourteen aircraft being shared equally between British Airways and Air France.

Despite protests over noise a trial service did begin to Washington DC in 1976, and when that proved successful a ban on flights to New York was overturned in 1977. Noise measurements of Concorde operations at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York all proved to be within the legal limits. New York soon became the favoured destination for Concorde passengers. After service-entry the maximum take-off weight was raised to 408,000 lb (185,066 kg), and a number of aerodynamic refinements were introduced, comprising a sharper leading edge to the upper portion of the fin, a thinned and lowered engine intake lip, and extending the rudders and elevons aft by 2 inches (0.05 m). This combination gave significant reductions in drag and fuel consumption. In subsequent years, fuel prices became relatively much cheaper, and the premium-price fares levied for supersonic service allowed a handsome operating profit to be made. In regular service Concorde proved to be very reliable and load factors remained high. In 1984, after prolonged negotiations, British Airways took over financial responsibility for in-service support of Concorde from the British Government, who had previously paid for everything. From 1995, the Concorde fleet was progressively equipped with the TCAS collision avoidance system.

Niggling incidents did sometimes occur. On more than one occasion, part of the rudder broke-away in flight, but the aircraft’s handling was not seriously affected. The rudder was replaced by a newer design. Tyre bursts on take-off or landing had been shown to cause minor damage to the wing skin on a number of occasions, but these incidents were regarded as minor. Then, on 25 July 2000, while on its take-off roll from Paris-Charles De Gaulle Airport, Air France Concorde F-BTSC hit a strip of titanium metal dropped onto the runway by a preceding aircraft. The metal strip sliced into the left front tyre of the left mainwheel bogie, which immediately exploded, causing large chunks of rubber to penetrate the lower wing skin at very high speed. The fuel tank in this portion of the wing was ruptured by the force of the impact, causing fuel to stream back along the underside of the wing. At this time number 2 engine lost all power and number 1 engine began behaving erratically. The fuel stream then caught fire. As the aircraft was already too far down the runway to stop, the pilot decided carry on and attempt an emergency landing at nearby Le Bourget Airport. After take-off the landing gear would not retract, and the aircraft could not gain airspeed. The aircraft stalled and crashed at Gonesse less than three minutes later, killing 113 people.

An unbreakable rule of airliner safety is ‘No single failure shall cause the loss of the aircraft’. In this case a single tyre burst resulted in a crash, and once a probable cause had been established, all Concordes were immediately grounded. Teams of engineers in Britain and France strived to produce workable solutions that would eliminate the problem but not cripple the operating economics of the airliner. On 5 September 2001 the proposed package of modifications was agreed by the airworthiness authorities. New Michelin-developed Near Zero Growth (NZG) tyres would be fitted, which didn’t explode when punctured, and Kevlar liners were to be installed in each fuel tank to drastically cut the rate of fuel leakage if the wing skin was damaged. The hydraulics for the main landing gear was also protected and potential sources of sparks eliminated. The first modified British Airways aircraft flew on 17 July 2001. On 7 November 2001 British Airways and Air France resumed regular passenger services, with the first Concorde arriving to a very special welcome in New York. The downturn in airline travel after 11 September 2001 slowed down the rate of return to service for the rest of the fleet, but with a new interior trim and plenty of fatigue life remaining the aircraft was still good for several more years yet. Four Air France and five British Airways Concordes underwent the modification programme.

On 10 April 2003, British Airways and Air France simultaneously announced that they would be withdrawing Concorde from service. Since it’s return to service, passenger numbers had not recovered to a sustainable level and the aircraft could no longer made a profit. The drastic decline in transatlantic air travel – Concorde’s only route – after September 2001 meant falling passenger revenue at the same time as support costs had increased. For example, the mandatory fitting of new cockpit security doors would cost ten times as much for the small Concorde fleet as it would for a Boeing aircraft. On 31 May 2003 Air France operated its last commercial service in a very low-key manner, and in the following month proceeded to deliver its aircraft to various museums. On 24 October 2003 British Airways celebrated the end of Concorde operations in grand style, with three aircraft landing one after another at Heathrow in front of a large crowd. The last ever Concorde flight occurred on 26 November 2003, when 216 (the last aircraft off the production line) returned to its birthplace in Filton, to be the centrepiece of a planned new Aviation Heritage Museum.

In the end, the real legacy of the Concorde programme is not just a beautiful airliner, but the culture and infrastructure of European technical collaboration which arose from its production. The Concorde factories at Filton and Toulouse became part of the Airbus company, which has now reached parity in airliner sales with the once dominant Boeing. Meanwhile, Concorde is still the world’s only commercial supersonic airliner in service.

Two views of G-BSST performing at the 1972 Farnborough Air Show. (photos, Keith McKenzie)

Variants

Requirement Specification: n/a
Manufacturers Designation: n/a

Development History:
Bristol Type 198 Series of SST design studies for STAC 1956-1960, evolving from a Mach 1.3 M-wing aircraft to a Mach 2.2 tail-less slender delta with 6 Olympus 591 engines.
Bristol Type 213 Mach 3.0 design study by Bristol (1959) with steel structure.
Bristol Type 223 Scaled-down version of final Type 198 design. Mach 2.2 design with four Olympus 593 engines and 100 passengers. (1961)
Super Caravelle Short/medium range 70-80 seat SST project design by Sud Aviation.
Concorde Trans-Atlantic British-led design study of long-haul version with additional fuselage fuel tank.
Concorde Medium Range French-led design study of short-haul version with ventral stairway instead of rear fuel tank. Dropped in favour of trans-Atlantic version.
Concorde 001/002 First and second prototypes. Shorter fuselage and only small windows in metal nose visor. Olympus 593-1, 2B or 3B engines.
Concorde 101/102 Pre-production aircraft with lengthened fuselage, smaller cabin windows and new glazed visor design. Olympus 593-4 or 593 Mk 602 engines.
Concorde series 200 Production version with higher gross weight, slightly extended main landing gear legs and improved systems. Olympus 593 Mk 602 or 610 engines.
Concorde Freighter Projected freighter version for Federal Express.
Concorde ‘B’ model Improved production version – planned for introduction from aircraft 17 onwards. Full span leading-edge droop and exended wingtips. Uprated engines with reheat deleted. Not built.
F-BTSD in ‘Pepsi’ colour scheme
(photo, Carl Ford)
British Airways Concorde G-BOAD
(photo, APG)

History

Key Dates:
5 November 1956    First meeting of STAC.
9 March 1959    STAC report recommends UK develop long-range supersonic transport.
February 1960    Bristol merged into BAC.
June 1961    Super Caravelle model displayed at Paris Air Show.
29 November 1962    Anglo-French Agreement signed and initial order placed for 2 prototypes, 2 pre-production examples and 2 test airframes.
January 1963    Concord(e) name first used.
June 1963    Three key airlines place first order options.
early 1965    Short-range Concorde version dropped by the French.
May 1965    Pre-production design announced.
11 December 1967    Prototype 001 rolled out at Toulouse.
September 1968    Prototype 002 rolled out at Filton.
2 March 1969    Maiden flight of prototype 001 at Toulouse.
9 April 1969    First flight of prototype 002 at Filton.
1 October 1969    001 exceeds Mach 1 for the first time.
1 January 1970    Sud Aviation merged into Aerospatiale.
4 November 1970    001 exceeds Mach 2 for the first time.
December 1970    Production version design frozen.
17 December 1971    First pre-production aircraft (101) maiden flight.
April 1972    Initial production batch started.
28 July 1972    First firm orders placed by BOAC & Air France.
10 January 1973    Second pre-production aircraft (102) maiden flight.
6 December 1973    First production aircraft (201) maiden flight.
January 1974    US airlines cancel their options.
July 1974    Agreement to limit production to 16 aircraft already ordered.
21 January 1976    World’s first supersonic passenger services, to Bahrain and Rio de Janeiro.
13 October 1975    French Certificate of Airworthiness granted.
5 December 1975    British Certificate of Airworthiness granted.
19 December 1975    First aircraft delivered to Air France (F-BVFA).
14 January 1976    First aircraft delivered to British Airways (G-BOAA).
March 1976    Concorde banned from New York JFK airport
24 May 1976    Services to Washington DC begin.
April 1977    BAC merged into British Aerospace.
22 November 1977    New York services begin.
20 April 1979    Maiden flight of last production aircraft.
1 April 1984    British Airways buys UK Concorde fleet from the British Government and assumes responsibility for their upkeep.
25 July 2000    Air France flight AF4590 crashes near Paris. Air France fleet grounded.
15 August 2000    British Airways fleet grounded following initial findings of accident investigation.
January 2001    Details of return to flight modifications announced.
17 July 2001    Successful test flight by first modified Concorde (G-BOAF)
5 September 2001    Modifications approved by airworthiness authorities – CofA restored
7 November 2001    Passengers services to New York resumed.
10 April 2003    British Airways and Air France announce withdrawal of Concorde from service.
31 May 2003    Air France operates last commercial services.
27 June 2003    Last Air France Concorde flight – delivery to a museum.
24 October 2003    British Airways operates last commercial services.
26 November 2003    Last ever Concorde flight – delivery to museum at Filton.

Operators

Military Operators

None  

Government Agencies

None  

Civilian Operators

UK BOAC – later British Airways
France Air France
Head-on view of F-BTSD
(photo, Bernard Charles)
Air France Concorde F-BVFC
(photo, Antoine Grondeau)

Specifications

Aerospatiale/BAC Concorde (prototype version)
Accomodation: Three crew + flight test observers and test equipment
Dimensions: Length 184 ft 6 in (56.30 m); Height 37 ft 5 in (11.40 m); Wing Span 83 ft 10 in (25.55 m); Wing Area 3,856 sq ft (358.22 sq m)
Engines: Four Rolls-Royce/SNECMA Olympus 593-1, 593-2B or 593-3B turbojets rated at 28,000 lb st (13 075 kg), 32,900 lb st (14 935 kg) or 34,730 lb st (15 767 kg) respectively with 17% reheat
Weights: Operating Empty 136,625 lb (61,976 kg); Maximum Take-off 326,000 lb (147,880 kg)
Performance: Maximum Speed Mach 2.08 at 51,300 ft (15,635 m); Cruising speed for optimum range Mach 2.02 at 51,300 ft (15,635 m); Maximum rate of climb at sea level 5000 ft/min (1525 m/min); Service ceiling 60,000 ft (18,290 m); Range not known.
Aerospatiale/BAC Concorde (Pre-production version)
Accomodation: Three crew + flight test observers and test equipment
Dimensions: Length 203 ft 9 in (62.10 m)
Engines: Four Rolls-Royce/SNECMA Olympus 593-4 or 593 Mk 602 turbojets rated at 36,800 lb st (16 707 kg) with 17% reheat
Weights: Maximum Take-off 358,000 lb (162,532 kg), later 389,100 lb (176 650 kg)
Aerospatiale/BAC Concorde (production version – final configuration)
Accomodation: Three crew + up to 144 economy-class passengers or 100 first-class passengers
Dimensions: Length 203 ft 9 in (62.10 m); Height 37 ft 5 in (11.40 m); Wing Span 83 ft 10 in (25.55 m); Wing Area 3,856 sq ft (358.22 sq m)
Engines: Four Rolls-Royce/SNECMA Olympus 593 Mk 610 turbojets rated at 38,050 lb st (17259 kg) with 17% reheat
Weights: Operating Empty 173,500 lb (78,698 kg); Maximum Take-off 408,000 lb (185,066 kg)
Performance: Maximum Speed Mach 2.2 at 51,300 ft (15,635 m); Cruising speed for optimum range Mach 2.04 at 51,300 ft (15,635 m) – equivalent to 1,354 mph (2,179 kph); Maximum rate of climb at sea level 5000 ft/min (1525 m/min); Service ceiling 60,000 ft (18,290 m); Range with maximum fuel 4,090 miles (6,582 km) with FAR fuel reserves and payload of 19,500 lb (8,845 kg), range with maximum payload at Mach 2.02 cruise 3,870 miles (6,228 km) with FAR fuel reserves.
F-BVFA landing
(photo, not known)
F-BVFB cleans-up after take-off
(photo, not known)

Production

Design Centre

Head of Design Team: Dr Bill Strang and Lucien Servanty (Chief Engineers)
Design Offices: Filton & Toulouse

Manufacture

Sud Aviation
(St Martin, Toulouse, France – later Société Nationale Industrielle Aérospatiale)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
prototype (001) 1 Toulouse Feb 1965-1967
pre-production (102) 1 Toulouse 1967-1973
pre-production* (201-215) 8 Toulouse 1973-1979
Total: 10    

* Odd numbered airframes.

BAC – British Aircraft Corporation Ltd
(Filton, Bristol, UK – later British Aerospace)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
prototype (002) 1 Filton Feb 1965-1968
pre-production (101) 1 Filton 1968-1971
production* (202-216) 8 Filton 1971-1979
Total: 10    

* Even numbered airframes.

Total Produced: 20 a/c (all variants)
[An additional two complete airframes where built for static load testing (France) and thermal/fatigue testing (UK-RAE Farnborough), in parallel with the pre-production aircraft].

Production List

Listing of Concorde production and aircraft final locations

G-BOAF
(photo, British Airways)
G-BOAF
(photo, British Airways)

More Information

Books

‘The Concorde Story’ [Order this book from USA] [Order this book from UK]
by Christopher Orlebar
Osprey Publishing, UK, 2002(5th)   ISBN: 1855326671
* Very comprehensive and detailed history.

‘Concorde: The Inside Story’ [Order this book from USA] [Order this book from UK]
by Brian Trubshaw
Sutton Publishing, UK, 21 Nov 2001 (2nd)   ISBN: 0750928115
* Authoritative history from the Concorde chief test pilot.

‘Flying Concorde – The Full Story’ [Order this book from UK]
by Brian Calvert
Airlife Publishing, UK, 1 Mar 2002(3rd)   ISBN: 1 840373520
* Development and service history.

‘Concorde – Airlife’s Airliners: 14’ [Order this book from UK]
by Gunter Endres
Airlife Publishing, UK, 31 Oct 2001   ISBN: 1 840372052
* Well illustrated service history.

‘Concorde’ [Order this book from UK]
Science Museum, UK, 15 Dec 2001   ISBN: 1 900 7474 21
* Explains the technology that went into Concorde’s design.

‘Concorde’ [Order this book from UK]
by Phil Birtles
Ian Allan, UK, 23 Nov 2000   ISBN: 0 7110 27404
* Concise development history.

‘Concorde – Airliner Color History’ [Order this book from UK]
by Gunter Endres
Motorbooks International, USA, Oct 2001   ISBN: 0 760 311 951
* Good pictorial history.

‘Concorde – From The Flightdeck: 5’
by Leney & Burney
Ian Allan Ltd, UK, 1991   ISBN: 0 7110 18960
* Describes a typical Concorde flight.

Magazines

‘Flight International’ – various issues 2000-2001

‘Flightpath Volume 1 Autumn/Fall 2003’
AIRtime Publishing, UK/USA, 2003   ISBN: 1 880588 65 X/1 880588 66 8
* Includes 60-page feature on Concorde – published just to soon to cover it’s retirement.

Production List:
‘Jet Airliner Production List – Volume 2’
The Aviation Hobby Shop, UK, 1998   ISBN: ?
* Full production and service histories of several jetliners – including Concorde.

Links

Concorde at Filton
* Visit G-BOAF at Filton.

British Airways

Air France

Last flight
* Video of Concorde’s last flight, returning to Filton in Bristol.

UK DoT Air Accidents Investigation Branch

BEA France Website
* Official Concorde crash report (in English).

ConcordeSST
* Huge website dedicated to every aspect of Concorde.

Concorde Supersonic Jet – Homepage
* Enthusiasts website dedicated to Concorde – several pages don’t work yet.

Le Site du Club Concorde AIACC
* Well illustrated history of Concorde.

Concorde en 1969
* French text illustrated report on the status of Concorde in June 1969.

BBC News In Depth Farewell to Concorde
* Full coverage of the retirement from service by British Airways.

BBC News In Depth Concorde Crash
* Another site covering the crash in detail.

Guardian Unlimited Special Reports The Concorde Crash
* Detailed coverage of the events surrounding the crash.

Shop

Flight Simulator Models:
To be added.

Scale Models:
To be added.

Scale Drawings:
To be added.

Videos:

‘Concorde – The Ultimate Profile’ [Order this video from UK]
Catalogue Number: DD2919
* A more recent history of Concorde.

‘The Concorde Story’ [Order this video from UK]
Catalogue Number: CHV2035
* History of Concorde.

‘A Celebration of Concorde – 25th Anniversary’ [Order this video from UK]
Catalogue Number: DD983
* 25 years of Concorde operations.

‘Concorde In The 21st Century’ [Order this video from UK]
Catalogue Number: FFP9533
* Profile of the British Airways Concorde fleet.

‘Concorde – The New Era’ [Order this video from UK]
Catalogue Number: FFP9683
* Concorde operations after the crash.

‘Concorde’ [Order this video from UK]
Catalogue Number: DD05634
* New profile of Concorde.

Dornier Do 335

Aircraft Profile
[NASM example Do 335A-0 VG+PH]
The last surviving example, Do 335A-0 VG+PH,
seen after restoration by Dornier.
(photo, Dornier)

Development

As the Second World War in Europe drew to a close, a powerful new twin-engined fighter was preparing to enter service with the Luftwaffe. The unique configuration of this aircraft conferred on it a phenomenal performance, which completely eclipsed all of its contemporaries; whilst its potential for devastating the massive Allied bomber streams that almost daily pounded the Reich was rivalled only by the Me 262 jet. This amazing machine was the piston-engined Dornier Do 335.

Aircraft designers are constantly seeking to maximise engine power and minimise drag. The increased power resulting from the adoption of a twin-engined layout, is normally partially offset by the increased drag and reduced manoeuvrability of an orthodox wing-mounted arrangement. An alternative arrangement, with the two engines mounted fore-and-aft in tandem is known as centre-line thrust. With the power from both engines being delivered along the aircraft centre-line, the obvious benefits of this layout include reduced frontal area, an aerodynamically clean wing and the elimination of the asymmetry problems associated with engine failure.

The Dornier Do 335 was a bold attempt to embody the centre-line thrust concept in a practical and efficient airframe. Its unique layout featured a conventional nose mounted engine and tractor airscrew, together with a second engine located in the rear fuselage, driving a pusher propeller situated aft of the tail unit.

The origins of the Dornier Do 335’s novel layout go back to the First World War. During the war Prof. Claude Dornier designed a number of flying boats, which typically featured a tandem engine installation. The engines were mounted back-to-back in pairs, with the forward unit driving a tractor airscrew and the aft facing unit a pusher propeller. This engine arrangement was subsequently adopted for the highly successful Dornier Do J Wal (Whale) flying boat of 1922.

In 1935 Dornier produced the Do 18, a much improved development of the Wal concept. To enable the pusher propeller to clear the trailing edge of the broad chord wing featured on this type, an extension drive shaft from the rear engine was introduced for the first time. The idea of placing the pilot between the two engines in such an arrangement obviously occurred to Dornier. Indeed, on 3rd August 1937 he filed patent number 728044 for an aircraft of just such a configuration. It was on the basis of this patent that the Do 335 came to be developed.

During 1939 Dornier was busy working on the P 59 high speed bomber project, which featured the tandem engine layout patented earlier. Work on the P 59 was stopped in early 1940 when Reichsmarschall Goering, anticipating a quick end to the war, ordered the cancellation of all work which would not see fruition within a year or so.

Despite this setback, Dornier soon began working on another unarmed high speed bomber project – the P 231. With an internal bomb load of 2200 lb, this design used a similar configuration to that of the P 59. In May 1942 Dornier submitted a refined version of the P 231 design in response to a Technische Amt requirement for a single seat high speed bomber. The Dornier proposal was selected as the winner after beating rival designs from Arado and Junkers. Despite official resistance to the unconventional layout, a development contract was awarded under the RLM designation Do 335.

In the Autumn of 1942, with detail design progressing, Dornier were informed by the RLM that the Do 335 was no longer required. In the light of the massive Allied air raids which had begun that year, the aircraft was to be redesigned as a multi-role fighter of broadly similar performance. Capable of duties as a single-seat fighter bomber, high speed reconnaissance, heavy fighter, and two seat night and all-weather interceptor.

However, the Technische Amt delayed issuing a formal contract, and Dornier eventually turned to the Inspector-General of the Luftwaffe, Generalfeldmarschall Milch, to expedite matters. The necessary redesign had been completed, and the first metal cut on the prototypes at Oberpfaffenhofen by the end of 1942.

As construction of the prototypes proceeded, the war situation was growing more serious. On 7 June 1943, Hitler himself intervened to expedite the Do 335 and Me 262 programmes. However, on 7 Sept 1943 Messerschmitt persuaded Hitler that the Me 262 would be a better suited as a high speed bomber than the Ar 234 or Do 335, and the Me 262 received sole priority. This was despite the fact that the Do 335’s bomb load was twice that of the Me 262. Milch’s advocacy of the other two types was brushed aside.

Fitted with Daimler-Benz DB603A-2 engines delivering 1750 hp at take-off, the first example, Do 335 V1 (CP+UA), flew for the first time on 26 October 1943 from Mengen, Württemberg, with Flugkapitan Hans Dieterle at the controls.

Aside from its unusual engine layout, the design incorporated several other unusual features. These included a reversible-pitch tractor airscrew, to shorten the rather long landing run; a wing leading edge de-icing system; hydraulically operated flaps; a tunnel radiator for the rear engine and a compressed air powered ejection seat. The latter being essential for a safe bale-out clear of the rear propeller, although the vertical tail and propeller could be jettisoned by explosive bolts when required.

After initial handling trials at Oberpfaffenhofen, the Do 335 V1 was ferried to the Rechlin Erprobungstelle for official evaluation. Although some snaking and porpoising was found at high speeds, the Rechlin test pilots were generally enthusiastic. They commented favourably on its general handling behaviour, manoeuvrability and in particular on its acceleration and turning circle. However, they also criticised the very poor rearward vision and weak undercarriage.

During the Winter and Spring of 1943-44, the first prototype was joined on the test programme by additional development aircraft. The Do 335 V2 (CP+UB) and V3 (CP+UC/T9+ZH) incorporated several minor changes with respect to the first prototype. The oil cooler intake under the nose was deleted and incorporated into an enlarged annular engine cowling; blisters were added to the cockpit canopy to house small rear view mirrors, and the main undercarriage doors were redesigned. Both aircraft were retained at Oberpfaffenhofen for further flight trails.

The Do 335 V4 was intended to be the prototype for the two-seat Do 435 night and all-weather interceptor, featuring side-by-side seating, cabin pressurisation, 2500 hp Jumo 222 engines and long span wooden outer wing panels. It was cancelled by the RLM in the Autumn of 1944 whilst still under construction.

The Do 335 V5 (CP+UE) was the armament test prototype, fitted with a 30 mm engine mounted MK103 cannon, and two 15 mm MG151 cannon mounted in the upper nose. The Do 335 V6 (CP+UF) and V7 (CP+UG) were retained at Oberpfaffenhofen for various equipment trials. The V7 later being transferred to Junkers at Dessau for ground tests with Jumo 213 engines installed. The Do 335 V8 (CP+UH) was used as an engine test bed, by Daimler-Benz.

The main production line was intended to be at Manzel, but a bombing raid in March 1944 destroyed much of the production tooling and forced Dornier to set up a new line at Oberpfaffenhofen.

On 23 May 1944, with an Allied invasion of France expected at any time, Hitler ordered maximum priority to be given to the Do 335 production effort. The decision was made to cancel the Heinkel He 219, and use it’s production facilities for the Do 335. However, Ernst Heinkel resisted the cancellation, and managed to delay (and eventually ignore) its implementation.

The Do 335 V9 (CP+UI) was the prototype for the Do 335A-0 pre-production model. Fitted with a strengthened undercarriage, DB603A-2 engines, and full armament, it was delivered to the Rechlin Erprobungstelle in May 1944 for further official trials. It was shortly followed off the Oberpfaffenhofen production line by the first Do 335A-0 (VG+PG). In all, ten Do 335A-0 fighter-bombers were produced. Several were used by Erprobungskommando 335 (EK335), formed in September 1944 for the service evaluation and development of operational tactics for this new type.

In late 1944, the Do 335A-1 superseded the A-0 on the production line. This was the initial production model, similar to the A-0 but with the uprated DB603E-1 engines and two underwing hard points for additional bombs or drop tanks. Delivery commenced in January 1945. Capable of a maximum speed of 474 mph at 21,325 ft with MW 50 boost, or 426 mph without boost, and able to climb to 26,250 ft in only 14.5 minutes, the Do 335A-1 could easily outpace any Allied fighters it encountered. It could also carry a bomb load of 1100 lb for 900 miles.

Although given the nickname ‘Pfeil’ (arrow) by Dornier test pilots, on account of its speed, service pilots quickly dubbed it ‘Ameisenbär’ (ant-eater) because of its long nose.

The Do 335A-2 And A-3 were proposed developments with improved cannon armament, but were never built. One Do 335A-0 became the prototype for the Do 335A-4. This was an unarmed long range reconnaissance model, with two Rb50/30 cameras in the weapons bay and DB603G engines. Ten A-4s were ordered for production, but none were completed.

The Do 335 V10 (CP+UK) was the prototype for the Do 335A-6 radar equipped two-seat night fighter variant. A second cockpit for the radar operator was inserted above and behind the normal cockpit. The weapons bay was replaced by a redesigned fuel tank, radar antennae were attached to the wing leading edges and flame dampers fitted to the exhausts. However, the FuG217 radar equipment was never actually fitted to the V10. Production of the A-6 was transferred to Heinkel in Vienna, but none were assembled.

The Do 335 V11 (CP+UL) and V12 (CP+UM) were prototypes for the Do 335A-10 and A-12 dual control conversion trainers respectively. The former having DB603A engines and the latter DB603E powerplants. The instructor occupied the second cockpit – although without an ejection seat, due to production shortages. Production examples were interspersed with the A-1 on the same production line.

As the war situation continued to deteriorate, development effort switched from the A-series fighter-bomber to the more heavily armed B-series heavy fighter. The Do 335 V13 (RP+UA) was the prototype of the Do 335B-1 which featured a revised nose undercarriage arrangement – the larger wheel being tilted at 45 degrees when fully retracted, a V-shaped armoured windscreen and DB603E engines. It’s weapons bay was replaced by an additional fuel tank, and the two 15 mm MG151 cannon in the nose replaced by 20 mm MG151s. The B-4 prototype, Do 335 V14 (RP+UB) had this armament supplemented by two 30 mm MK103 cannon mounted on the inner wing leading edges. Only the two B-series prototypes were actually completed and flown – further developments were still under construction, some with two-stage supercharger DB603LA engines capable of 2100 hp.

Plagued by mechanical unreliability and lack of aviation fuel, the operational career of the Do 335 is rather obscure. Do 335A-0 and A-1 aircraft are thought to have flown a number of operational missions with EK335. Some were also used by III/KG2 in the Spring of 1945. French fighter ace Pierre Clostermann’s book ‘The Big Show’ mentions an encounter with a Do 335 in April 1945, during which the German aircraft easily outpaced the pursuing Hawker Tempests and escaped. Such events were very rare, so it seems likely that most operations were high speed interdiction missions – many taking place at night.

When the US Army overran the Oberpfaffenhofen factory in late April 1945, only 11 Do 335A-1 single seat fighter-bombers and two Do 335A-12 conversion trainers had been completed. A further nine A-1’s, four A-4’s and two A-12’s were in final assembly, and components and assemblies for nearly 70 more had been completed. Heinkel at Vienna had been unable to build any Do 335A-6 night fighters.

A number of planned developments of the Do 335 were on the drawing board when the war ended, including several big-winged high altitude fighter versions, the Do 535 with a jet rear engine, the Do 635 (later Ju 8-635) long range reconnaissance version which featured twin fuselages linked by a common wing centre section, and the P.256 twin jet fighter.

As part of Operation Seahorse, two of the surviving A-0 single seaters were put aboard the US aircraft carrier ‘Reaper’ and shipped back to the USA, for detailed evaluation by the US Navy and USAAF. An airworthy A-12 two seater was flown to Britain and flight tested at RAE Farnborough, but a companion A-1 force-landed in France on its delivery flight and was abandoned. Two of the B-series prototypes were also evaluated by the CEV in France.

Today, the sole remaining example of this unique type is on display at the new Udvar-Hazy Center (the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum at Dulles Airport, Virginia, USA). Do 335A-0 VP+GH (Wk Nr. 240102) had been evaluated at the US Navy’s Patuxent River Test Center in 1945. Thereafter, it languished in open storage for 27 years. Initially in the grounds of NAS Norfolk, and later in the National Air & Space Museum (NASM) storage facility at Silver Hill. In October 1974 the decaying airframe was flown back to Munich, for a complete restoration by Dornier Aircraft at Oberpfaffenhofen (then building Alpha Jets). The magnificently restored aircraft was first displayed at the Hannover Airshow, 1-9 May 1976, and then loaned to the Deutches Museum, Munich, for a several years before returning to the NASM.

Technically innovative, heavily armed and possessing a performance which no other piston-engined aircraft has ever achieved or surpassed, the Do 335 possessed great potential as a combat aircraft, but never got the chance to prove itself. Delayed by high ranking indecision and Allied bombing raids, it simply ran out of time.

Do 335V-1 with chin oil cooler and circular
mainwheel doors. (photo, Dornier)
Do 335V-3 T9+ZH with revised nose shape and
mainwheel doors. (photo, Dornier)

Variants

Requirement Specification:
Manufacturers Designation: Do 335

Development History:
P 59-04 Initial single-seat high-speed bomber project. Push-pull engine configuration. Elliptical fin. 1938-39.
P 231 Revised single-seat high-speed bomber project. P 231/2 became Do 335.
Do 335V1 First prototype. DB603A-2 engines. Chin oil cooler intake. Circular mainwheel covers.
Do 335V2 & V3 Second & third prototypes. Chin intake deleted – enlarged nose cowling. Canopy blisters. Revised mainwheel doors.
Do 335V4 to V14 Development & test prototype aircraft. Various engine and armament standards.
Do 335A-0 Pre-production version. DB603A-2. (Prototype was V9).
Do 335A-1 Initial production version of fighter-bomber variant. DB603E-1 with enlarged supercharger, 2 external wing hard points.
Do 335A-2 Proposed heavy fighter variant, superceded by Do 335B series
Do 335A-3 Proposed heavy fighter variant, superceded by Do 335B series
Do 335A-4 Unarmed long-range reconnaissance variant. DB603G. 2 cameras in weapons bay. (Prototype was A-0 converted).
Do 335A-5 No information
Do 335A-6 2-seat night fighter, FuG 217J radar, DB 603E engines. (Prototype was V10).
Do 335A-7 No information
Do 335A-8 No information
Do 335A-9 No information
Do 335A-10 Tandem two-seat trainer version of Do 335A-0. DB603A-2 engines. (Prototype was V11).
Do 335A-11 No information
Do 335A-12 Tandem two-seat trainer version of Do 335A-1. DB603E-1 engines. (Prototype was V12).
Do 335B-1 Initial production heavy-fighter variant, with DB603E engines. (Prototype was V13).
Do 335B-2 Heavy fighter, DB603E engines.
Do 335B-3 Heavy fighter, DB603LA engines with two-stage superchargers.
Do 335B-4 High altitude version of B-3 with long span wings. (Prototype was V14).
Do 335B-5 No information
Do 335B-6 Night fighter with DB603E engines, similar to Do 335A-6.
Do 335B-7 High altitude night fighter, version of Do 335B-6 with DB603LA engines.
Do 335B-8 Version of B-7 with long-span wings of Do 335B-4.
Do 435 Side-by-side 2-seat radar-equipped night fighter. Pressurised cabin. Jumo 222 radial engines. Long span wings. (Prototype was V4).
Do 535 Designation reserved for production version of mixed-power P 232.
Do 635 Projected version with two Do 335B fuselages joined by common wing centre-section. DB603E engines. Heinkel Project 1075.
Ju 635 Version of Do 635 further developed by Junkers. 3-seater with stretched fuselages.
P 231/3 Projected mixed-power variant of Do 335A with rear engine replaced by Jumo 004C turbojet. Lateral air intakes.
P 232/2 Refined version of P 231/3. May 1943.
P 232/3 Projected variant of P 232/2 with single dorsal intake. Sept 1943.
P 237/3 High-altitude fighter project, similar to P 232. August 1944.
P 238/1 Projected high-altitude fighter. Elongated fuselage with teardrop canopy. Jumo 222A-2 radial engines. (Junkers Ju 435?)
P 247 ‘Next generation’ Do 335 project with nose engine deleted, Jumo 213T pusher engine, 30 degree wing sweep. Dec 1944.
P 252 Further variant of P 247 with tandem DB603LA or Jumo 213J engines driving rear mounted contra-rotating propellers. Jan 1945.
P 254 2-seat night-fighter/zerstorer project. Rear engine replaced by HeS 011 turbojet fed by lateral intakes. Lower fin deleted. Second crew member located just ahead of rear engine. Jan 1945.
P 256 Twin-jet night-fighter/zerstorer project based on Do 335. HeS 011 engines underwing. 3 crew. March 1945.
Pre-production Do 335A-0 240107.
(photo, Dornier)
Another view of Do 335A-0 240107.
(photo, Dornier)

History

Key Dates:
3 August 1937    Patent No. 728044 granted for tractor and shaft-driven pusher propeller arrangement.
1939    P 59 high speed bomber project.
1940    P 231 high speed bomber project initiated.
May 1942    P 231 submitted to RLM against single-seat bomber requirement.
1942    Development contract placed with Dornier. P 231 becomes Do 335.
1942    Dornier instructed to redesign Do 335 for multi-purpose fighter role.
late 1942    First metal cut at Oberpfafenhofen to construct a prototype.
1943    RLM places contracts with Dornier for 14 prototypes, 10 pre-production aircraft, 11 production aircraft and 3 two-seaters.
26 October 1943    First prototype, Do 335V1, first flight.
late 1943    Do 335V1 begins official trials at Rechlin.
Autumn 1944    Side-by-side two-seater Do 335V4 cancelled by RLM.
March 1944    Allied bombing raid on Manzel production line.
23 May 1944    Hitler gives Do 335 maximum priority.
September 1944    Luftwaffe establishes EK335 to evaluate Do 335 for service use.
January 1945    First Do 335A-1 deliveries.
22 April 1945    Oberpfaffenhofen captured by Allies.
June 1948    Evaluation by Allies completed – survivors scrapped or stored.
1961    Sole survivor donated to NASM, but stored at NAS Norfolk
10 October 1974    Sole survivor delivered from NASM to Dornier for restoration.
1986    Sole survivor returned to NASM Silver Hill storage centre.
2003    Sole survivor put on display at NASM Udvar-Hazy Center.
Trainer version Do 335A-12 240112, seen at
RAE Farnborough. (photo, Dornier)
Do 335A-0 204102 in US Navy markings.
Later donated to the NASM. (photo, Dornier)

Operators

Military Operators

Germany – Luftwaffe Some with EK335 & III/KG 2
USA – Navy 1 x Do 335A-0 for evaluation
USA – USAAF 1 x Do 335A-0 for evaluation

Government Agencies

France – CEV Do 335 V14 & V17 for evaluation
UK – RAE Farnborough 1 x Do 335A-1*, 1 x Do 335A-12 for evaluation

* forced landed on delivery flight and abandoned.

Civilian Operators

None
Rear propeller installation on Do 335V-9
CP+UI 23009. (photo, Dornier)
Do 335A-0 VG+PK/105 after capture by the US
Army at Lechfeld April 1945. (photo, Jim Reed)

Specifications

Dornier Do 335A-1
Accomodation: One Pilot
Dimensions: Length 45 ft 5.25 in (13.85 m); Height 16 ft 4.8 in (5.0 m); Wing Span 45 ft 3.3 in (13.8 m); Wing Area 414.411 sq ft (38.5 sq m).
Engines: Two Daimler-Benz DB603E-1 12-cylinder inverted-vee liquid cooled engines in push-pull arrangement – each rated at 1,800 hp for take-off.
Weights: Empty equipped 16,005 lb (7,260 kg); Normal loaded 21,165 lb (9,600 kg).
Performance: Max speed 474 mph (763 km/h) at 21, 325 ft (6,500 m); Max cruising speed 426 mph (685 km/h) at 23,360 ft (7,100 m); Economical cruising speed 281 mph (552 km/h) at 19,685 ft (6000 m); Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m) 55 sec, to 26,245 ft (8000 m) 14.5 min; Service ceiling 37,400 ft (11,400 m); Range on internal fuel at max continuous power 867 miles (1400 km), at economical cruise power 1,280 miles (2050 km);
Armament: One 30 mm MK103 cannon with 70 rounds, firing through the front propeller hub, and two 15 mm MG151/15 cannon with 200 r.p.g. above the nose, plus one 1,102 lb (500 kg) bomb or two 551 lb (250 kg) bombs internally and 551 lb (250 kg) bombs on underwing racks.
Do 335 cockpit.
(photo, Dornier)
Nose engine installation
(photo, Dornier)

Production

Design Centre

Head of Design Team: Prof. Claude Dornier
Design Offices: Dornier-Werke G.m.b.H., Oberpfaffenhofen

Manufacture

Dornier-Werke G.m.b.H.
(Oberpfaffenhofen, Weßling, Germany)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
Do 335V1 to V14 13+1* Friedrichshafen mid 1943-mid 1944
Do 335A-0 10 Oberpfaffenhofen July 1944-Oct 1944
Do 335A-1 11+9* Oberpfaffenhofen Nov 1944-April 1945
Do 335A-4 4* Oberpfaffenhofen Jan 1945-Feb 1945
Do 335A-6 none Heinkel, Vienna-Swechat
Do 335A-10 1+1* Oberpfaffenhofen Oct 1944-Apr 1945
Do 335A-12 2+2* Oberpfaffenhofen Nov 1944-Apr 1945
Do 335B-1 1 Oberpfaffenhofen Jan-Feb 1945
Do 335B-2 2 Oberpfaffenhofen Feb-Mar 1945
Do 335B-3 1* Oberpfaffenhofen Feb-April 1945
Do 335B-6 2 Oberpfaffenhofen Jan-Feb 1945
Do 335B-7 1* Oberpfaffenhofen Feb-April 1945
Do 335B-8 2* Oberpfaffenhofen Feb-April 1945
Total: 42 + 21*    

* not completed.

Total Produced: 42 (all variants)
Full Do 335 Production List

Production List

Do 335 prodn

More Information

Books

‘Dornier Do 335 “Pfeil” – The Last and Best Piston-Engine Fighter of the Luftwaffe’ [Order this book from USA] [Order this book from UK]
by Heinz J Nowarra
Schiffer Publishing, Oct 1989   ISBN: 0 88740 189 9
* Landscape format pictorial history. B+w illustrations only, except for covers. English language version of German-text Waffen Arsenal 93 from Podzun-Pallas (ISBN 3-7909-0243-8)

‘Dornier 335 – Monogram Close-Up 21’ [Order this book from USA]
by J. Richard Smith and Eddie J. Creek
Monogram Aviation Publications, Jan 1983   ISBN: 0-914144-21-9
* Detailed look at the development of the Do 335.

‘Monogram Monarch Series Number 2: Dornier 335 Arrow’ [Order this book from USA] [Order this book from UK]
by J. Richard Smith, Eddie J. Creek & Thomas H. Hitchcock.
Monogram Aviation Publications, Jan 1998   ISBN: 0-914144-52-9
* Essentially an expanded version of Monogram Close Up 21 with the addition of a chapter on the history of the Dornier Company and a chapter on projects derived from the Do 335. It also contains additional illustrations. Extremely comprehensive.

‘Dornier Do 335. Mehrzweck-Jagdflugzeug’
by Karl Heinz Regnat
Aviatic Verlag, Dec 2000   ISBN: 3-925505-59-8
* Very good history of the Do 335. German text. Available from www.amazon.de

‘Dornier Do 335: An Illustrated History’ [Order this book from UK]
by Karl Heinz Regnat
Schiffer Publishing, Aug 2003   ISBN: 0764318721
* English language version of above.

‘Dornier Do 335 Pfeil (Aircraft Monograph 15)’ [Order this book from USA]
by Marek Rys
AJ Press, July 2000   ISBN: 8372370532
* Extremely well illustrated profile with 34 pages of 1/72 scale drawings and 9 pages of colour drawings. English-language version of Polish-text Monografie Lotnicze 67 (ISBN: 83-7237-052-4)

‘Vom Original zum Modell: Dornier Do 335’ [Order this book from USA]
by Karl Heinz Regnat
Bernard & Graefe Verlag, July 1999   ISBN: 3-7637-6018-0
* Comprehensive scale modellers guide to the Do 335. German text. Available from www.amazon.de

‘Dornier Do 335, 435, 635: Kampfflugzeug – Aufklärer – Zerstörer – Nachtjäger’
by Manfred Griehl
Motorbuch Verlag, April 2004   ISBN: 3613023806
* The most complete and authoritative book on the subject. German text. Available from www.amazon.de

‘German Aircraft Industry and Production 1933-1945’ [Order this book from USA] [Order this book from UK]
by Ferenc A Vajda & Peter G Dancey
Airlife Publishing, July 1998   ISBN: 076800246X
* Includes details of Do 335 production from official records

‘War Prizes – An Illustrated Survey of German, Italian and Japanese Aircraft Brought to Allied Countries During and After the Second World War’ [Order this book from USA] [Order this book from UK]
by Phil Butler
Midland Publishing, April 1994   ISBN: 0904597865
* Includes the individual histories of the six operational Do 335s captured by the Allies after WW2

‘Warplanes of the Luftwaffe’ [Order this book from USA] [Order this book from UK]
by David Donald
Aerospace Publishing/AIRtime Publishing, Jan 1997   ISBN: 1880588102/1880588102
* Comprehensive, well illustrated, guide to the aircraft used by the Luftwaffe in WW2, including the Do 335

Magazines

Air Enthusiast January 1973 p16-21
Air Enthusiast No.52 p54-59
Airfoil Vol.1 No.1 Winter 1983 p26-39
Aviation News Vol.22 No.5
IPMS-USA Quarterly Vol.17 No.4 p5-18
Scale Aircraft Modelling April 1982 p311-316
Scale Models Vol.6 No.70 July 1975 p348-358

Links

Luftwaffe Resource Centre: Dornier Do 335
* Spec, photos

Dornier Do 335A-1 Pfeil
* NASM official page on the Do 335

Podklady
* 13 Do 335 photos

The Luftwaffe in Scale
* Dornier Do 335V3 colour profile & notes

Camouflage of the Do 335:
A Critical Re-evaluation

* Detailed feature on Do 335 colours and paint schemes

WWII German Aircraft Photos – Fighters: Dornier 335 Pfeil
* 8 pages of Do 335 photos (144 photos)

Dornier Do 335
* Photos of the sole survivor’s restoration in Germany

Dornier Do 335 Decals
* Cutting Edge decals review

Dornier Do 335 Pfeil
* Two pages of b+w photos & drawings.

Rare Color Photographs of Do 335
* Good detail photos of Do 335 in storage at Silver Hill

Wikipedia: Dornier Do 335
* History, technical spec

The Do 335 ‘Arrow’ at Unter Biberg
* Narrative and photos of Do 335 visit to US occupied airfield in 1945

Wings Palette
* 31 colour profile drawings of German, French, UK & US Do 335s

AXLs Plane Gallery
* 17 Do 335 photos

WWII German Aircraft Projects List: Dornier
* Links to details for projects P 247, P 252 and P 256

Junkers Ju 635
* Artwork, history, spec

Dornier/Heinkel Do 435/He 535
* Drawing, spec and brief history

Shop

Flight Simulator Models:
To be added.

Scale Models:
To be added.

Scale Drawings:
Aviation News Vol.10 No.20
A. L. Bentley Drawings
NASM Archives

Videos:

Dornier Do-335
* Documentary on the Do 335 using original flight test footage – VHS cassette