Colombia Key Dates

1499    Alonso de Ojeda was the first Spaniard to enter Colombia.
1533    Pedro de Heredia founded Cartagena.
1538    Jiménez de Quesada founded Santa Fe de Bogotá (present-day Bogotá).
1717    Philip V established the Viceroyalty of New Granada (present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador).
1739    Bogotá became its capital.
1781    Comunero Revolt, the most serious revolt against Spanish authority before the war for independence.
20 July 1810    Creation of a criollo governing council in Bogotá.
1812    Starting in 1812, individual provinces began declaring absolute independence from Spain.
February 1819    Venezuela, Colombia, and Panana convened a congress in Angostura and agreed to unite in a republic to be known as Gran Colombia.
1821    The Cúcuta Congress wrote a constitution for the new republic.
1830    Divisive forces at work within the republic achieved a major triumph as the Venezuelan and Ecuadorian portions of the republic seceded.
1850    Official establishment of the Liberal Party (Partido Liberal–PL) and the Conservative Party (Partido Conservador–PC), the two parties that continued to dominate Colombian politics in the 1980s.
1858    Mariano Ospina Rodríguez renamed the country the Grenadine Confederation.
1886    The Constitution of 1886 renamed the country the Republic of Colombia and, with amendments, remained in effect in the late 1980s.
July 1899    Liberals again attempted a revolution, known as the War of a Thousand Days.
1903    Panama left the Republic of Colombia.
1930    Enrique Olaya Herrera became president.
1932-1934    Leticia Conflict.
1943    The declaration of war on the Axis Powers.
1948-1958    La violencia (civil war) in Colombia.
July 1956    Gómez and Lleras Camargo signed the Declaration of Benidorm.
1957    President Rojas Pinilla resigned.
August 1958    Lleras Camargo, a Liberal, was elected as the first president under the National Front.
1964    Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) was formed.
1966    Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) began operating.
1970    Misael Pastrana Borrero became president.
1972    The guerrilla group–the 19th of April Movement (Movimiento 19 de Abril–M-19)–emerged.
Secember 1980    Operation Tiburón, resulted in the seizure of more than 2,700 tons of marijuana.
1982    Belisario Betancur Cuartas became president.
2001    The Bush administration inherited ‘Plan Colombia’.
May 2002    Álvaro Uribe Vélez became president.

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