Lost in the mist of the recently concluded Olympics Games and the current United States’ Presidential campaign is the fact that the French President, Nicolas Sarkozy, has completely transform France’s overall nuclear posture in a period of just one year. Although this transformation had its roots in the mid 1990s under former president of Jacques Chirac, it was Sarkozy who will go on to fully implement the reforms Chirac envisioned. Among other things, Sarkozy’s New Strategic Vision pledged France to reduce its overall nuclear stockpile, consolidate its armed forces and to slow the peace of next generation nuclear weapons design and development. The new French president even mentioned France’s desire to rejoin the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) after a forty two years absent. All of this in the background of the release of the much anticipated White Paper on Defense and National Security which foment the nation’s defense posture for the near-to-medium future. It is the attempt of this article to shed light on the French government new nuclear posture. Its weapon and delivery platforms, availabilities and weapons development.
a. The White Paper on Defense and National Security
The White Paper is a comprehensive and detailed overall review of France’s defense capabilities, budgetary platforms and its current and future force structure posture. The current Paper edition has its roots on a 1972 government inquire about the then current state of the country’s armed forces and its strategic vision for the future. The 1972 review was followed by a more extensive 1994 Paper. The 1994 review was so comprehensive that it became the cornerstone of France’s modern armed force structure. Among the 1994 Paper’s accomplishments was the restructuring of all of the country’s armed services into an all volunteer, professional force similar to that of the United States or Great Britain. The 1994 review also paved the way for the development of Continental Europe’s first true Expeditionary Force as a mean of projecting France’s military prowess beyond its borders. But what was more significant about the 1994 review was the elimination of the nuclear deterrent element of the French ground Army. As per the White Paper accepted doctrine of 1994, France went on to dismantle its S-3 Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile silos from the Plateau d’Albion. For the first time since its inceptions into the field in the mid 1950s, the French Army was stripped of its nuclear-tipped surface-to-surface missile systems such as the short range HADES platform.
As comprehensive as the 1994 review was, by the early 2000s it became apparent, specially after the events of September 11th 2001 that a new overhaul of the French forces and its tactical and strategic implementation was needed. Thus in August 2007, the President of the Republic appointed a high level commission to craft the country’s next military doctrine. This new Paper established the country’s military, both conventional and nuclear doctrine for the next fifteen years. Among many of the review’s findings was one that is at the heart of the country’s new, more “assertive” foreign and military posture: the vulnerability of France’s territories against a limited, albeit powerful, missile strike from states once considered as third world countries.
The Paper stressed the need for modernization and consolidation among the country’s armed services. Among other items studied and elaborated by the Paper are the areas of detailing the State’s future ability to detect, collect and transmit information through secure channels. The country’s ability to defend its territorial integrity as well as its ability to project its power overseas. It also discusses a vast array of threats and areas of concern. It deals with budgetary and infrastructure issues as well. The Paper also and for the first time, proposed a major shift in the role of the civilian population in regards to its support of the armed forces. But at the heart of the Paper is the Nuclear Posture which assures the country’s survival in an event of a major attack. The current White Paper was commissioned in July 2007. It was revealed to the public in Paris by the current president, Nicolas Sarkozy in June 17th 2008 in front of 3,000 military officers.
b. President of the Republic and Co-Prince of Andorra Nicolas Sarkozy
Born January 28th 1955. Sarkozy had been Minister of the Interior in two previous French governments. He was the leader of the center to right Union for a Popular Movement political party. He assumed the presidency of France on May 16th 2007. Sarkozy is looked by many military, political observers and analysts as a fiscally conservative leader who would like to move France back into the heart of the European defense posture. He is more incline to achieve a strong Atlantic Alliance with the United States than other Western European leaders beside the British Prime Minister. A sharp policy departure from his predecessors.
c. France’s Role in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO by its acrimony, is a military-political alliance formed with the aim of contain the spread of communism through out post World War II Europe. The Treaty was officially signed on April 4th 1949. NATO currently has a membership of twenty six states and its headquarters are located in Brussels, Belgium. France was originally a founding member of the Alliance. In fact, the NATO’s first operational headquarters was located on the outskirts of Paris.
The French Republic began to succeed from NATO military organization in 1959. On March of that year, President Charles de Gaulle removed the country’s Mediterranean Fleet from the Treaty’s command structure. This move was followed four months later with the request for removal of all foreign-based nuclear weapon systems from French territory. By 1964, de Gaulle had also removed the Atlantic and Channel Fleets from the command. Thus paving the way for the official conclusion of all military ties with NATO in 1966. This state of affairs between NATO and France would last until the first steps of French re-approach commenced in late 1994 with the sending of a French military attaché to Brussels. The trend continued with a 1995 agreement between the leaders of NATO and the French government. The agreement, which caped off two years of face-to-face consultation about a French role in the alliance, made France’s military participation into the Treaty’s Ministerial Conferences a reality.
The 2007 White Paper advocates full French reintegration into NATO’s military structure as part of the country’s strategic vision. But the Paper clearly stipulate three main factors that had be “clean up” before France rejoins the Treaty Organization. The three factors or “stipulations” are, first, that France’s will keep command control over all of its nuclear assets and the deterrence posture they offer the country. Second, and maybe the most pressing point any French head of state will insist upon, is the country’s reserved right of decision making regarding the use of, not only its nuclear capability, but all of its military assets. Free from a third party command structure, the French Republic wants to hold permanent and solely control over its military force. Thirdly and more to the heart of former president de Gaulle’s dream, no French military formation or asset will serve under NATO command during peace time for a prolong time. If these factors can be “ironed out”, then a full integration of France into NATO military and political command structure will become a reality.
France had possessed nuclear weapon systems since the 1950s. At the beginning France’s Nuclear Posture is based on three key points: Instability, Strategic Security, and Nuclear Independency.
France’s regards instability on a state and/or sub-state level and their technological breakthroughs a possible threats to the “strategic stability” balance in the world.
b. Strategic Security
France regards four major theaters of operations as their main areas of concern:
1. The Arc of the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean. This area is regarded as a breeding ground for nuclear and other Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) proliferation.
2. The Sub-Sahara Africa. This is an area filled with the so-called fail states which are a prime territory for terrorist cultivation.
3. Eastern Europe. With the new and assertive Russian Federation, this theater is rapidly moving up in France’s strategic vision list.
4. The Asian Continent. As the current economic environment continue to grow in the area, so those the possibility of a regional conflict.
c. Nuclear Independency
At the heart of France’s military and political vision lay its objective of maintaining a credible and powerful nuclear strategic force as a deterrence. This force compromise the backbone of the Nation’s strategic and tactical vision.
Nuclear Delivery Systems
With the removal of its tactical surface-to-surface missile platforms, France was left with two fully operational Nuclear Delivery Systems: the nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine and the nuclear carrying fighter/bomber.
1. The Submarine Delivery System
a. The Nuclear Powered Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN)
The SSBN or “boomers” had its origins during the early days of the Nuclear Age and the Cold War as both, the Soviet Union and the United States began to develop more and more powerful nuclear ordinances. France’s new Sousmarins Nucleaires Lanceurs d’Engins-Nouvelle Generation or SSBN class of submarine is the Le Triomphant. First ordered back on march 10th 1984, the Le Triomphant class was viewed as a more advance platform to the venerable Le Redoutable class of SSBN as France’s main strategic nuclear deterrence platform.
Designed and built at the prestigious Direction des Constructions et Armes Navales (DCN) in Cherbourg, the Le Triomphant class was originally conceived to be six boat-strong but political and budgetary changes at the beginning of the 1990s forced the government to reduce the force to four boats.
|Le Triomphant (S-616)||July 13 1993||March 21 1997||Operational|
|Le Temeraire (S-617)||August 8 1997||December 12 1999||Operational|
|Le Vigilant (S-618)||July 3 2002||November 30 2004||Operational|
|Le Terrible (S-619)||July 11 2005||2008-?||2010*|
* Projected date for first operational patrol.
Each boat has the same hull specifications and are equally built. The French government suggested that the Le Triomphant hull’s which was developed around the ultra tense HY-130 steel alloy will give the boat one of the quieter sound signature of any submergible, man-made body. Hull length is 453′-0″ with a beam of 41′-0″. Total surface displacement is 12640 tons while submerged displacement totaled 14120 tons. Each of the class subs is powered by one GWC PAR K-15 nuclear reactor with 150 MW of power output. The K-15 power a one shaft configuration. The engine is supplemented by two diesel auxiliary engines and one emergency motor. The engine gives the Le Triomphant subs a top surface speed of twelve knots. While its dive speed is twenty five knots. Maximum dive capability is estimated at 1640 feet. One hundred and eleven officers and submariners are needed to maneuver the sub. The subs of the class were fitted with a powerful DMUX 80 multi-function passive and flank array as well as a passive ranging and intercept mechanism. A very low frequency towed array is also carried on each sub.
The Le Triomphant class subs weapon system was originally centered around sixteen T45/TN75 SLBM each with six Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicles (MIRV) warheads for a total warhead count of eighty per submarine. The T45 system would be replaced on the next Le Triomphant-class boat, the Le Terrible (2010) and eventually on the three previous subs, by the new and more advance M51 system. Augmenting the SLBMs are a complement of SM 39 Exocet anti-ship missiles and 18 ECAN L5 torpedoes housed on four twenty one inch torpedo tubes and two forward storage facilities.
b. Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM)
France’s currently operates the much publicized T45/TN75 SLBM systems. The T45 or M-45 as its commondly known is a fourth generation SLBM directly derivate from the M-4 system. The M-45 is developed by Aerospatiale, Space and Strategic System Division at Les Mureaux.
|Propulsion||Three staged, solid fuel mechanism|
|1||20000 kg||62 seconds|
|Payload Capacity||35000 kg|
|Operational Range||6000 km|
|Guidance Mechanism||One Inertial Plus Computer System|
|Operational Accuracy||500/350 m|
|Number of Warheads||Six|
The M-45 was fired for the first time on March 1988. In 1996 the missile system became operational with the French Navy. The MIRV configuration of the M-45 is six TN-75 thermonuclear warheads. Each weight it around 250 kg which make the missile lighter thus improving the SLBM range. The development of the TN-75 was a major technological breakthrough for France. Its high performing configuration can only be seen in the arsenals of the United States, Great Britain and the next generation of Russian nuclear weapons systems. Each TN-75 is believed to have a 100 kt of explosive power. The TN-75 had a harden cover as well as an special paint coat to protect it from electromagnetic impulses that cold alter its guidance mechanism. It also posses some cover stealth features which make it difficult for radar stations to detect during its reentry stage.
Today, France is in the process of preparing to deploy its fifth generation SLBM platform, the M-51.1. The M-51 program had its origins in a 1992 government recommendation for the development of the Next Generation of Thermonuclear Weapons. The M-51 is very similar to the M-45 system. Its length is 13.00 m and the diameter is 2.35 m. Is estimated that the M-51 will weight around 5000 kg. Operational range of the M-51 will be between 8000 and 10000 km. Each missile will carry at first six TN-75 MIRV. Plans are in the works for the development of more advance, bunker penetrating nuclear warheads which should be operational by the summer of 2015.
c. Submarine Basing and Deployment
During the decades of the Cold War, France maintained a redundant submarine deployment. Two SSBN boats were deployed at any one time with two on alert and two on tactical reserve. As the Cold War ended, the French government re-evaluated its submarine deployment. The strategic missile boat force is organized under the Strategic Oceanic Force based at Ile Longue. Also located at Ile Longue is France’s Atlantic Fleet. Ile Longue is located at the Crozon Peninsula near the Brest Bay (48 degrees 18′-15″ N and 4 degrees 26′-45″ W) The Ile Longue area was selected by President de Gaulle in the spring of 1965 because of its large natural harbor and its remote location far and away from any major population center. Work began in the summer of 1967 to habilitate the base. It ran undisturbed until its competition in 1972. The Ile Longue facility had a unique hardening housing sector similar to the United States’ ground based ICBM silos (24 vertical missile silos in all) dedicated to the storage of the unused M-45 SLBMs. There’s also an “igloo” dedicated to the housing of the TN-75 warheads. Since the summer of 2006, work had commenced on that area of the base to prepare it for the arrival of the M-51 missile systems. The SSBN utilized the Rosnay-Indre structured communication center as the main communication link between the country’s command and control centers an a deployed SSBN. Testing for the SSBN M-45 SLBM systems takes place at the remote Centre d’Essais de Landes or Landes Test Center Facility near Biscarosse. The test area had been operational since July 1967. It had been the main testing center for all of France’s ballistic missile configurations. The Center is located at 44 degrees 27′ N and 1 degree 15′ W. the French Navy main launching test bed is the Base Lancemen Balistique located at 44.362 degrees N and 1.2500 degrees W.
Currently, France had one Le Triomphant class submarine on a two month tour deployment at all times. The other two available boats are on tactical alert at the Ile Longue base. Each SSBN is manned by a two crew system. A practice performed by France since the development of its SSBN force. While a sea, the SSBN is screened by a number of supporting submarines, surface vessels and aircrafts. Typical, all SSBN deployments are accompanied by a concurring SSN deployment. Currently, France deploys a fleet of six SSN Rubis Class of fast attack submarines. Plans are in the work to field the next generation of nuclear powered attack submarines: the Barracuda Class. The Rubis class is based at Toulon and its main mission profile is the cover of France’s SSBN force. The first boat of the class, the Rubis, was commissioned in February 1983, the last built sub, the Diamant, was officially welcomed into the fleet in 1999. France’s true “first” generation of self-sufficient nuclear attack submarines is compromised of the following boats.
|Rubis (S-601)||July 7 1979||February 23 1983||Operational|
|Saphir (S-602)||September 1 1981||July 6 1984||Operational|
|Casabianca (S-603)||December 22 1984||April 21 1987||Operational|
|Emeraude (S-604)||April 12 1986||September 15 1988||Operational|
|Amethyste (S-605)||May 14 1988||March 20 1992||Operational|
|Perle (S-606)||September 22 1990||July 7 1993||Operational|
These attack subs are augmented by a small fleet of two dedicated Tourville Class (F67) Anti-submarine Frigates. Plans are well underway to field France’s next generation frigate platform, the FREMM Multipurpose Frigate Platform. The FREMM is a join effort between the French and Italian government. As of today, France expect the first FREMM vessel to be commissioned by the fall of 2011. Is expected that France will field up to seventeen of these advance weapon systems by 2017.
The SSBN surface support component is aided by a separate maritime asset: the C-160H Astarte Communication Aircraft. Developed by the Transporter Allianz Group in the early 1960s. The first C-160 took to the air on its maiden flight on February 25 1963. The first production line batch were of 169 units with the last completed by the spring of 1972. There are five variants of the C-160. The C-160D which is still in operations with the Turkish Air Force, the C-160F/R, the G/Gabriel, the Astarte and the NG; all designed exclusively for the French armed forces. The aircraft fuselage measures 106′-3″ in length with a wingspan of 131′-3″. The aircraft has a height of 38′-3″. Two powerful Rolls-Royce TYNE Turboprops engines, each generating up to 6000 shp, power two, four propeller blades alignments. Maximum speed is 513 km/h with an operational range of 2750 nautical miles. Total payload capacity for the airframe is 8000 kg. As with many of France’s weapon systems, plans are in the work to phaseout the venerable Astarte in favor of a militarize version of the Airbus 400M aircraft.
2. The Nuclear Capable Fighter/Bomber: Marine Nationale
France operates two fully equipped sea-based squadrons with the sole purpose of nuclear deterrence. The squadron is part of the Charles de Gaulle nuclear power aircraft carrier’s air wing. The Charles de Gaulle is France’s most advance and capable aircraft carrier design. It is also the flag ship of the French Navy and a powerful symbol of the country’s ingenuity and sense of national pride. In September 1980, the French government approved the design and development of two next generation, nuclear power aircraft carriers to replace its aging Clemenceau Class fleet which dated back to the mid 1950s. As the program progressed it became obious to many inside the Ministry of Defense that the whole program were to be plagued by constant cost overruns and major technical difficulties, nevertheless, the CVN de Gaulle project continued. The carrier’s hull was launched in April 1989. Five years later, on May 1994, the Charles de Gaulle was officially launched. As the sea trial period commenced, a number of construction errors began to surfaced delaying the commissioned of the carrier until May 2001. Even after completion, the carrier’s construction mistakes, most noticeable its mistaken catapult measurements; prevent it from utilizing the US-made E-2C Hawkeye Electronic Surveillance Aircraft. Between the fall of 1999 and the autumn of 2000, the carrier’s angled flight deck area was lengthened accordingly to the E-2C’s takeoff characteristics. There were plans to develop a second Charles de Gaulle class of carrier, most likely a conventional powered version, but the government experience with the first prototype and the public reactions to the continuing delays had probably put to rest the idea for the time being.
LENGTH BEAM DRAUGHT DISPLACEMENT (Tons) 857′-8″ 211′-4″ 27′-10″ 30000 empty/40600 loaded
- Crew Compliment and Basing: The boat can accommodate up to 1,150 officers and crewmen, plus 550 aircrew compliment. It can also carry nearly 800 Marines and fifty flag ranked officers.
- Machinery: Two Type K-15 nuclear reactors, the same ones that powered the Le Triomphant class of submarines, deliver 300 MW (402,145 shp) and two turbines delivering 56845.21 kW (76,000 shp) powering two massive shafts. Top speed is twenty five knots but sea trials had placed the maximum speed closer to the twenty seven knot level. The aircraft carrier has two 246′-0″ US-type C-13F catapults which were able to launch a 23 ton aircraft. A below deck hangar facility is capable of storing twenty to twenty five airframes.
- Armament: The Charles de Gaulle is fitted with an advance Integrated Weapons Systems centered around four Sylver octuple VLS launchers. The launchers carries the ASTER 15 anti-missile missiles. Two Sadral PDMS sextuple launchers for the MISTRAL Surface to Air Missile augment it. There’s also eight powerful Giat 20 mm heavy machine guns for close quarters engagements. The ship also posses an impressive array of countermeasure devices. Chief among them are four Sagaie ten barrel decoy launchers. A LAD off-board decoy mechanism serves as backup. There are plans to fit a SLAT torpedo decoy platform.
- Electronics Package: The Charles de Gaulle is fitted with a vast array of sensors and radar system. The main defensive radar is the DRBJ 11B Air Search Radar which is supplemented by a DRBV 26D Jupiter Air Search Radar a DRBV 15D Air-Surface Radar, two DRBN 34A Navigational Radar and a second generation Arabel 3D Fire and Control Radar System.
- Air Complement: Up to forty aircrafts including 24 Super Etendard, 2 E-2C Hawkeyes, 10 Rafale M and 2 SA 365F Dauphin search and rescue platforms.
Currently, the Charles de Gaulle currently operates two fully operational, nuclear capable Super Etendard strike fighter.
The Dassault Company Super Etendard (Standard) Program was designed to meet French military standards following the air combat experiences of the Korean Conflict. The Etendard program had its origins in the mid 1950s and the program ran un-eventually until the first production unit, the Etendard IV-M took to the air for its maiden flight in May 1958 . Before the IV-M variant first flight, Dassault had developed four other prototypes that were deemed un-fitted for the French Air Force, but the IV variant enticed the Navy. French Admirals, seeing the potential of this new air platform as a multi role strike-capable fighter, pushed hard for the model to enter production which the aircraft did in the fall of 1959. Between 1961 and the spring of 1965, the French Navy took delivery of 69 IV-M units plus 21 modified frames used as reconnaissance-tanker platforms. All of the Etendard’s 90 units served aboard France’s two deployed aircraft carriers: the Foch and the Clemenceau. The IV-M would serve the Navy for thirty years, being last unit retired from active service in July 1991. The unexpected success of the IV-M variant embolden Dassault to develop a replacement for it. They named the Super Etendard, the new fighter/bomber featured a redesigned Atar 8K-50 engine as well as a strengthened airframe for high speed operations. Revised flaps were installed on the wing structure to ease the aircraft’s takeoff motion. Modern navigational systems as well as the revolutionizer Thomson Multi Role Radar Array was also fitted into the new platform.
On the morning of October 28th 1974, the first Super Etendard prototype took to the air for the first time. After an extended testing phase, the Super Etendard when into full production mode. By the summer of 1978, the French Navy had received 71 units and was expected one hundred more. Massive budgetary overexpending curtailed the program.
Power Plant SNECMA 11005lb afterburning thrust Atar 8K-50 turbojet engine Armament Two internal 30mm DEFA Cannons, six hard points. Up to 4630lb of
bombs and rockets
Airframe Dimensions Length 14.3m Height 3.86m Wingspan 9.6m Total wing area 28.4m/2 Weight Empty 6500kg Fully Loaded 12000kg Air Performance Top Speed 1205kph Ceiling 13700m Operational Range 650km Climb Rate 6000m/per minute
The Super Etendards, are based on the Charles de Gaulle. When the French carrier is not on patrol, its main operational base is at Rade Toulon (43 degrees .08′ N and 5 degrees 55′ E). Toulon is a southern French city of enormous naval heritage. Conceived initially to be a major military storage facility, the first blocks were put on in 1599. The facility was upgraded by the infamous Cardinal Richeliu, who wanted to make France a major naval player, between 1604 trough 1610. Known as the Arsenal, the base is home, not only to France’s only nuclear powered carrier, but to a complement of submarines and small vessels.
When not on deployment, the Charles de Gaulle air complement sits at station alert in Landivisiau. It was there that France maintain a force of nearly forty available aircrafts with twenty more on strategic reserve. The base was first develop in 1963. By February 1965, President de Gaulle inaugurated the facility which had been the center for naval air operations since then. It is expected that by 2012, Landivisiau will be home of sixty Rafale strike platforms.
The French Navy is receiving deliveries of its newest carrier-based fighter/bomber: the Dassault-designed Rafale MK-3. Originally, France was a leading member of an European consortium assigned the task to develop the Continent next advance fighter/bomber platform, the Eurofighter. The country decided to withdraw from the project and to pursue an indigenous program instead. In 1982, France disclosed to the public its new aircraft program now called the Rafale (Squall). A technological demonstrator was rolled out on December 1986. The (A) version first took to the air on July 4th 1986. The Rafale is a single seat (a two seated variant is also available) aircraft based on a compound sweep delta wing structure similar to that of the Mirage. It posses an all moving canard configuration, a single fin and semi-vented intakes. It have a state-of-the-art fly by wire systems, augmented by an advance avionic package. The plane’s cockpit is fitted with the HOTAS and FLIR, touch sensitive system that allows the pilot a greater degree of integration with the platform than on any previous French aircrafts. The Rafale was first fitted with a F1 software packed. The software was updated in the late 1990s to a F1.1 which add more compatibility with the IR-homing version of the Mica AAM and MIDS data-link to allow the Rafale prompt communication with its supporting air package (most likely the E-2C Hawkeyes). Fifty percent of the Rafale’s airframe is made up of aluminum-lithium composites.
The Rafale made its first naval testing during 1987 when it clearly demonstrated its ability to handle carrier duties. The flight testing phase of the program concluded in January 1994. The first production version, C-01 introduced a new level of autonomy and stealth to the French fighter. A reshaped wingroot fairing and a goal-coated canopy were introduced as part of France’s first true attempt to develop stealth technology. Also, the airframe was littered with antennas attached to the SPECTRA self defense system. A multirole RBE2 radar array was fitted on the recontoured nose cone. The C-01 also, for the first time, demonstrated France’s ability to utilize dry-thrust (supercruise). The first navalized version of the Rafale was the M-01 which took to the air for its maiden flight on December 12th `1991. The M version had an strengthened undercarriage, an arrest hook and a jump strut nosewheel. The M made its first carrier landing on the Foch in the morning of April 19th 1993. The next Rafale prototype, the two seated B-01, made its maiden flight on April 30th 1993. On December 4th 2000, the first sixty Rafale Ms were accepted by the French Navy.
These aircrafts will be part of Flotilla 12 aboard the Charles de Gaulle. It is expected that the Rafale platform (MK-3 for nuclear delivery) would replace the outdated Super Etendard strike aircraft as the Navy’s main nuclear delivery platform commencing in the summer of 2010. Reduction in the number of carriers planned by the Navy (only one will be constructed) will also curtail the Rafale’s production run.
Power Plant Two SNECMA M88-2 turbofan 16424lb thrust Armament One 30mm DEFA 791B cannon, 12 hard-points Airframe Dimensions Length 15.30m Height 5.34m Wingspan 10.90m Total wing area 28.4m/2 Weight Fully Loaded 19500kg Air Performance Top Speed 2130km/h Ceiling 16765m Operational Range 1854km Climb Rate 6000m/per minute
B. Air Sol Moyenne Portee (ASMP) Ballistic Missile
The only nuclear offensive platform employed by the French Navy’s Super Etendard fighter/bombers is the advance, medium range ASMP Ballistic Missile System. The ASMP is designed and produced by Aerospatiale, Space and Strategic System Division at Les Mureaux.
|Propulsion||One solid propellant booster and one ONERA Kerosene fueled ram jet engine|
|Payload Capacity||35000 kg|
|Operational Range||80 km (Low altitude) 300 km (High altitude)|
|Guidance Mechanism||One Inertial Standalone Computer System|
|Operational Accuracy||500/350 m|
The ASMP was first fired in May 1986. In 1988 the missile system became operational with the French Navy. The TN-81 is a miniaturized and hardened nuclear warhead designed specifically for the ASMP platform. The TN-81 is similar to the TN-70/71 in technical sophistication. It is a higher yield warhead though, roughly similar in yield and weight to the W78 Minuteman III warhead. The TN-80/81 has a yield of 300 kt, and a weight of around 200 kg. Development of the TN-81 commenced in late 1974. The improved TN-81 was first tested in 1984 and went into production in 1985. It entered service on July 1988 on the Mirage 2000N platform. It was later deployed on the Super Etendard, and finally replaced the venerable TN-80 on the Mirage IVP in 1991.
France is currently developing an improved version of the ASMP, suffixed -A. The -A version will have a larger area of operations (estimated to be between 500 to 600 km) and greater trajectory capabilities at all altitudes. The system is expected to become operational by late 2000. As with the missile, the TN-81 warhead is expected to be replaced by the decade’s end.
3. The Nuclear Capable Fighter/Bomber: The Armee de L’Air (Air Army)
The French Air Force, most accurate, its Air Army, possessed of fifty nuclear deterrent aircrafts. As of today, those are the Mirage 2000N version.
Designed to replace France’s aging fleet of Mirage IVP bombers which provided the country’s sole aerial nuclear capability. Dassault Company designed the 2000 around the after mentioned ASMP missile. The fist design of the 2000 was revealed to the French government in the summer of 1974. By December 1975, the design had gather the approval of the government and work commenced in earnests. The first prototype flew on March 10th 1978. The two seated (B) version took to the air for its first flight on October 11th 1980. Meanwhile, the (N) version flew for the first on February 2nd 1983. The N version airframe is based on the (B) training type. The frame was strengthened to withstand the high levels of stress associated to high-subsonic, low level flight profile. The N had several modifications that make its unique among France air platforms. For example, the nose cone housed a Dassault Electronique-Thomson CSF Antilope V radar array which replaced the common RDM/RDI system. The V offered the N version an all terrain following air-to-air, air-to-sea, air-to-ground; advance ground mapping system. The aircraft is also fitted with Dassault Electronique Sabre jammers and a Serval advance warning radar system. It also possess a MATRA Spirale integrated decoy mechanism. Initial order for the N version ran to 100 units, however, constants delays on the Rafale program and the pressing need to replace the outclassed Mirage IIIE, forced the government to procure seventy more units. These were to be employed as conventional delivery platforms.
All of the Mirage N versions are schedule to be replaced by the Rafale F3 bomber beginning in early 2009. As with the Navy air strike arm, all of the Air Force’s nuclear strike platforms carry the ASMP missile system.
Power Plant One SNECMA M53 turbofan 16424lb thrust Armament No internal gun set. Nine hard points. Airframe Dimensions Length 14.50m Height 5.10m Wingspan 9.10m Weight Fully Loaded 16005kg Air Performance Top Speed 2338km/h Ceiling 18000m Operational Range 1480km Climb Rate 17080m/per minute
Air Army currently operates fifty Mirage 2000N aircrafts on three squadrons. Two, squadrons La Fayette and Dauphine; were based at Luxeuil. Luxeuil is one of France’s main operational bases. Located at 47 degrees 66′-59″ N and 006 degrees 21′-51″ E. The base posses two runways parallel (2433mm and 2315m respectively). The most prominent facility of the base is the Depot Atelier Munitions Specialisees or Special Amounitions Storage facility. The Depot is a hardened bunker utilized to house the ASMP stand off missiles.
The other squadron, Limousin, sits at Istres. Located at 43 degrees 31′-28″ N and 4 degrees 56′-30″ E, north of Marseilles. The base housed another Depot for nuclear weapons storage facility. It also the home base of two multirole squadrons as well as other support units.
4. Total Nuclear Inventory
It is estimated that the current French Nuclear Weapons Inventory is about 300 warheads diverted into two main delivery systems. There are estimates that the country carry up to 50 more warheads as a strategic reserve force. As impressive as this total is, it pale in comparison to the country’s 1992 estimated warhead total of 538 units.
Nuclear Deterrence Force
|CURRENT ACTIVE INVENTORY||300|
Because President Sarkozy’s pledge of reducing the country’s nuclear arsenal. It is expected that before the year 2011, France will have a total of 290 operational warheads in its inventory. Still a powerful inventory. One that is only rivaled by the US, Russia and China.
As for the future, France is in the process of establishing an advance simulator computer-based program, featuring the TERA super computer, that will assure the reliability of their nuclear stockpile. France’s main nuclear simulator center is located at Bruyeres le Chatel. This simulator, in conjunction with the Accelerateur a Induction radiographie pour L’Imagerie or AIRIX; will provide test data for future nuclear weapons design and development programs
– Raul Colon
The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft, editor Paul Eden, Amber Books 2007
Air Power: The Men, Machines and Ideas that Revolutionized War, From Kitty Hawk to Gulf War II, Stephen Budiansky, Penguin Group 2004
Jane’s Aircraft Recognition Guide, Gunther Endres and Mike Gething, HarperCollins Books, 2002
Jane’s Submarines: War Beneath the Waves From 1776 to the Present Day, Robert Hutchinson, HarperCollins Publishing 2005
The Illustrated World Guide to Submarines, John Parker, Hermes House, 2007
Aircraft Carriers: the World’s Greatest Naval Vessels and their Aircraft, Chris Bishop and Chris Chant, MBI Publishing, 2004
The French White Paper on Defence and National Security, French Government