Líneas Aéreas Paraguayas

of the Paraguayan Air Force

History

The unit was created and organized by the Paraguayan Air Force in 1962. It was officially founded on 18.3.1963 and operated three Convair CV-240.

Services included flights to Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Sao Paulo and Curitiba from the Paraguayan capital of Asuncion. The CV-240s were replaced by Lockheed L-188A/C Electra acquired from Eastern Air Lines and were used by LAP for over 20 years. In 1970, service started to Santa Cruz (Bolivia), Resistencia and Salta (Argentina) with a C-47 transferred from the Military Air Transport of the FAP. In 1972, La Paz (Bolivia) was added to LAP’s network. In 1973 a route to Lima was inaugurated and in 1978 to Santiago (Chile).

The pure jet age came in 1978 with the purchase of two Boeing 707-320 from Pan American Airways and with those services to Miami began. In 1979, services started to Madrid and Frankfurt. When another 707 was bought (1982), service to Brussels started. Due to noise restrictions, a DC-8-63 ex-Air Canada was bought in 1984 for the route to Miami. During the 1980s other routes were tried like Mexico City and Panama City, but just for a few months. In 1988, an ex-SPANTAX DC-8-61 was bought. This plane had an accident in Bs.As. in 1990 and was replaced by a leased DC-8-62 for a few months. Also in 1990, LAP received an ex-UNITED DC-8-71 followed by another similar aircraft in 1991.

In 1992 a Douglas DC-10-30 came into service. Eventually LAP received two more DC-10-30, one ex-UTA for a few months and the other ex-VARIG. Operations to US and Europe were performed by the DC-10s and regional flights with a 707 and the DC-8-63. In 1993, and for a few months, a BAe 146-300 operated in LAP on loan from the factory. Since LAP was a government losing company, attempts to privatize were not fruitful and the money losing operation was shut down in 1994.

In October of that year, it was privatised and sold to a Ecuadorian-Paraguayan Consortium, which restarted operations in February 1995 with two Boeing 737-200 for regional routes, three Airbus A.320-200 for medium range routes in South America and an Airbus A.310-300 for the route to Miami. Flights to Europe were not initiated.

This company was resold to the Brazilian TAM Group in 1996, which used only Fokker 100 jets to cover all regional destinations. The airline was renamed TAM-Mercosur (Transportes Aéreos del Mercosur). Routes to Miami and Europe were never restarted. In 2008, TAM-Mercosur was absorbed by the parent company, TAM Airlines.

Subordinate Units

None.

Aircraft

Type Qty Service Example Serials
Convair CV-240 3 1962 – 1973 ZP-CDN,ZP-CDO,ZP-CDN
Lockheed L-188 Electra 3 1969 – 1978 ZP-CBX,ZP-CBY,ZP-CBZ
Douglas R4D-1 Dakota 1 1971 – 1978 ZP-CCG
Boeing 707 3 1978 – 1994 ZP-CCE,ZP-CCF,ZP-CCG
Douglas DC-8 6 1984 – 1994 ZP-CCH,ZP-CCR,N8072U,N8079U,N810BN,N8974U
Douglas DC-10 3 1992 – 1994 N602DC,F-BTDB,PP-VMX
British Aerospace BAe 146-300 1 1993 – 1994 ZP-CCY


Unit Markings

Líneas Aéreas Paraguayas


Main Bases

Base Duration
Base Aérea Silvio Pettirossi IAP/Asunción 1962 – 1994


Photographs

None currently available.

More Information

References

Other Sources

To be added.

Transporte Aéreo Militar

of the Paraguayan Air Force

History

The unit was formed on 10.3.1954 with one DC-3 Dakota to increase the transportation capabilities for passengers, mail and cargo, while at the same time intensifying the training of military pilots. TAM made scheduled flights throughout Paraguay. Many aircraft are jointly used by the Transporte Aéreo Militar (TAM) and the Grupo de Transporte Aéreo. During the next years the TAM received about 30 C-47 Dakota aircraft. All the transport airplanes changed their serial system in 1980, from “T” to a four digit number system. Due to economic crisis in Paraguay the unit was disbanded in August 1998.

Subordinate Units

None.

Aircraft

Type Qty Service Example Serials
Douglas C-47 Dakota 34 1954 – 1998 T-21,23,25,27,33,35,37,41,43,45,47,49,51,53,

55,57,59,61,63,65,67,69,71,73,75,77,79,81,83,

85,2003-2028,2030,2032,2034

Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina 2 1955 – 1988 T-29,31
Convair CV-240 1 1963 – 1969 T-63
Douglas DC-6B 3 1975 – 1988 4001-4003
Convair C-131D Samaritan 1 1976 – 1989 2001
CASA C-212 Aviocar 5 1984 – 1998 2027,2029,2031,2033,2035


Unit Markings

Transporte Aéreo Militar (TAM)


Main Bases

Base Duration
Base Aérea Silvio Pettirossi IAP/Asunción 1954 – 1998


Photographs

None currently available.

More Information

References

  • World Air Forces Directory 2006/2007 (Ian Carroll)

Other Sources

To be added.

Lineas Aéreas de Transporte Nacional

of the Paraguayan Air Force

History

The unit was formed on 12.7.1944. But it was not until August 1945, when the airline started operations with some aircraft from the Paraguay Air Force (FAP). The main operations base at that time was Base Aérea Ñu-Guazú, as the was no commercial airport operational in Asunción. In 1947 seven Stinson aircraft replaced the Travel Air and Breda aircraft. During the revolution LATN had to stop operations from March 8, 1947 until September 9, 1947. In 1950 the center of operations was shifted to the Aeroclub of Paraguay at Kilometer 5 on Route Mariscal Estigarribia but the airline moved another time in 1951 to its permanent base at the Asunción International Airport. During the next years LATN many some additional aircraft. Due to financial problems the government decided in May 1989 to transfer all aircraft to the Grupo Aéreo de Transporte Especiales of the FAP. But it was only in 1991, when the assets of LATN were restored from aircraft received from the FAP. It was only four years later, when the airline had financial problems again and the government decided to liquidate the company and auctioned off all airline assets in 1995.

Subordinate Units

None.

Aircraft

Type Qty Service Example Serials
Consolidated Fleet 2 3 1931 – 1966 ZP-TAE,TAF,TAG
Breda Ba.44 1 1933 – 1947 T-15
Travel Air 6000 2 1945 – 1947 ZP-SEC,SED
Caproni Ca.309 Ghibli 2 1939 – n/a ZP-TAL,TAM
Stinson 108 Voyager 2 1947 – 1950 ZP-CAA,CAB
Stinson SR-10 Reliant 5 1947 – 1950 ZP-CAC,CAD,CAE,CAF,CAG
Aeronca Chief 11A 1 n/a – n/a ZP-TCF
Aeronca Sedan 15AC 4 1950 – n/a ZP-CAH,CAI,CAJ,CAK
Beech C35/D35/S35/A36 Bonanza 10/1/2/1 1951 – 1995 ZP-CAL,CAM,TAO,TAP,TAQ,TAR,TAV,TAW,TAX,TAZ,TBB
Piper PA-22 Tri-Pacer 4 1953 – n/a ZP-CAN,CAO,CAP,CAQ
Noorduyn UC-64A Norseman 5 1954 – n/a ZP-CAV,CAW,CAX,CAY,CAZ
Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina 2 1955 – 1988 ZP-CBA,CBB
Beech UC-45F Expeditor 8 n/a – n/a ZP-CBF,CBG,CBH,CBI,CBJ,CCB,TBG
Cessna 185 (U-17A) Skywagon 2 1961 – n/a ZP-CAF,CBE
Beech C33 Debonair 3 n/a – 1995 ZP-CAU(2),CAW(2),TWC
Cessna U-206G Stationair 5 1990 – 1992 ZP-CBR,CBS,CBU,CBV,CCA
Cessna 180 1 n/a – n/a ZP-CBW
Cessna 207 7 n/a – 1995 ZP-CCB(3),CCC,CCD,CCI,CCM,CCN, CCO
Cessna 402B Utililiner 1 n/a – n/a ZP-CCL


Unit Markings

Figure 1
To be added


Main Bases

Base Duration
Base Aérea Ñu-Guazú/Asunción 1944 – 1950
Route Mariscal Estigarribia/Asunción 1950 – 1951
Base Aérea Silvio Pettirossi IAP/Asunción 1951 – 1995


Photographs

None currently available.

More Information

References

Other Sources

To be added.

Servicio Aeronaval

of the Paraguayan Navy

History

The Servicio Aeronaval (SAN) was created in 1966 with two JRF-5 and one JRF-6. The idea was born to create a sort of an aerial transport service for passengers, mail and small cargo, similar to that of the Transporte Aéreo Militar (TAM). The Navy had the need to have fast and direct communications and transportation to its installations located in far away corners of the country while at the same time they had to keep the ongoing training for the naval pilots and also to be able to train new pilots. During 1968 the Grumman aircraft were replaced with some Cessna aircraft. The service was disbanded in 1981.



Subordinate Units

None.

Aircraft

Type Qty Service Example Serials
Grumman JRF-6B Goose 1 1966 – 1968 128
Cessna 206 Stationair 4 1966 – 1981 130-133
Cessna 210 Centurion 2 1974 – 1981 134,136
Douglas C-47 Dakota 1 1979 – 1981 T-26


Unit Markings

Figure 1
To be added


Main Bases

Base Duration
Arsenal de Marina/Puerto Sajonia 1966 – 1981


Photographs

None currently available.

More Information

References

Other Sources

To be added.

Commercial Operators – United Kingdom


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Name IATA Code ICAO Code Status
A
Air Wales n/a n/a ceased
Alderney Air n/a AD renamed
Atlantic Airlines AT ATL active
B
British Airways (1) n/a n/a ceased
British Airways (2) BA BAW active
British Caledonian Airways BC BCA ceased
British European Airways BE BEA ceased
C
Castle Air CS CAS active
Cloud Air n/a n/a renamed
Coventry Aviation n/a n/a ceased
D
Darlington Air Cargo DL DAC ceased
Delta Aviation Services DE DAS active
Devon Airways n/a n/a ceased
E
Eastern Airways T3 EZE active
EasyJet U2 EZY active
Eglinton Air Services EG QWE ceased
Elite Airways EL ELQ ceased

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Heating Up

Today, more than ever, concerns about the realities of global warming had spotlighted the need of change inside the United States’ already struggling civil aviation industry.

As the new Obama administration tries to muscle the US aviation industry to take harder steps in an attempt to steam the runaway effects of climate changes, look for state and regional officials to push hard for a deep examination of the role played by aviation plays in the overall environmental situation.

While cars, factories and power generating plants are the indisputable leaders in the pollution race, it now appears that aviation is moving up the ladder.

In California, where a Republican governor has bolted the party’s line on climate changes, civil aviation officials are currently compiling data on how much pollution airports and aircraft generate.

Early last year, the Air Quality Research Center at the University of California at Davis, showed an aerial image of what one early victim of rising San Francisco Bay water might look. It was of a submerge Oakland International airport. A frightening image still resonating in the minds of those who saw it.

The Bay Area Air Quality Management District is a public health organization that oversees air quality in nine counties surrounding the Bay, including four large airports: the San Francisco International, the mentioned Oakland facility, the San Jose International and the US Air Force’s Travis Air Force base. The agency reported last fall that aircraft’s share of the pollution index is increasing in comparison to more traditional platforms such as cars, factories and power plants.

The main concern about aviation air pollution comes in the form of unburned hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. New issues, primarily the degradation of Earth’s radiance balance, are now joining the ever increasing list of environmental concerns.
For more than two decades, concerns about the loss of Earth’s protective stratospheric ozone layer have been driving regulatory provisions. Now particulate matter is gaining more attention because of the general public’s concerns about greenhouse gases.
Estimates of how much aviation contributes to global pollution vary depending of its definition. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) placed aircraft related pollution at around 3.4% of the total radiation ‘forcing’, a figure of climate change, excluding its effects on cirrus clouds. ICAO expects that figure to increase twofold over the next twenty years.

In an interview with Michael Mecham back in 2007, atmospheric scientist, Donald Wuebbles said that “the climate change impact is potentially the most serious long-term problem facing the aviation industry”.
Five years ago, most regulatory constraints were focus on NOx emissions, now carbon is getting a much visible profile because of the greenhouse effect.

The equalizer? Fuel prices! The continuing high price of aviation fuel has placed a greater emphasis in developing fuel-saving engines. That alone will reduce aviation’s carbon footprint.

The US military is also getting into the act. The Pentagon wants cleaner burning fuels, but its experiments with Fischer-Tropsch type of synthetic fuel mixtures has been prompted because of the country’s overly dependency on foreign sources rather than innovating push.

The Defense Department overall fuel consumption is almost the same of what the largest US carriers burn. As with the civilian industry, the Air Force has a targeted goal of cutting back emissions. If the Pentagon can arrive at their propose standard of producing 100 million gallons of a 50/50 synthetic-petroleum mix by early 2010, it can cut up to 15 million pounds of carbon particles and 1.2 billion pounds of CO2.

While such industry and military initiatives proceed, the biggest issue for the government is how to accurately measure aviation pollution. For this, the Transportation Department has been working since the early 2000s in developing a computer program that can model emissions dispersals in the vicinity of airports. Its set to become operational in the summer of 2010.

– Raul Colon

Four Aircraft that Changed
the way Mail was Delivered

Once upon a time, the world moved at a slower pace than it does today. No mass media, no 24-7 news channels, and no next-day mail delivery service were available. But with the advent of the aircraft as a functional operational machine, the world changed completely in an instant. In the past, mail was delivered on horses, trains, boats and even primitive automobiles and/or four-wheeled trucks, these methods of delivery took days, weeks or even months in some instances; but with the invention and development of the airplane, mail delivery reached a new dimension. Thus the airplane had a direct effect on how people could communicate throughout great expanses of territory. They shortened, not the distance between sender and receiver, but the time the mail took from getting from the originating party to the end user. In the course of the early aircraft-supplied mail delivery system, four very distinct aircraft stood out from the pack. These four represented the epitome of air cargo delivery in an age of constant development and improvements.

In the spring of 1911, an early sample of the Wiseman-Cooke airplane was the first flying machine to deliver mail in the United States, when pilot and aviation pioneer Fred Wiseman carried a pack of letters from Petaluma to Santa Rosa in California. The complete eighteen-and-a-half mile trip was covered by Wiseman in two full days. Many mechanical difficulties, common on those early flying machines, delayed his trip. When he was airborne, the Wiseman-Cooke plane could only muster speeds just short of seventy mile per hour. Slightly built and very similar in airframe construction to the famous Wright Brother’s Flyer, the Cooke was powered by a Hall-Scott V8 engine modified to give the 670 lbs airframe enough speed to clear the ground. The next generation of mail delivery airplanes instituted a big move forward with the inception of the Curtiss JN-4, also called the Jenny. The Jenny was an advanced version of an early Curtiss JN model used mainly as a training aircraft during the Great War by the British Royal Flying Corps. Introduced in mid 1915, the JN-4 had a fuselage of 27′-4″ in length with a height of 9′-10.5″. Total wing area for the Jenny was 352 sq ft. A Curtiss designed OX5 in-line piston engine, capable of generating nearly seventy miles per hour, powered the JN-4. After the War ended in August 1918, the United States Postal Office adopted the Jenny as it’s first official air mail carrier plane. But the Jenny’s relatively small operational range, (it could operate only about one hundred and seventy five miles without refueling and maintenance); made it ill-suited for long-range mail delivery. It also did not help that the Jenny’s payload capacity was only three hundred pounds. Soon after its incorporation into the US Mail System, the Jenny was retired from front line service in less than a year.

When the US Postal Service bought the JN-4s, they also acquired a small group of de Havilland DH-4 airplanes from the US Army Signal Corp supply depot. The Airco, (or de Havilland), DH-4 was a two-seater daylight medium bomber produced in Great Britain. The DH-4 had an airframe 30′-8″ in length and a height of 10′-5″. When in combat, the DH-4 was armed with a single 7.7 mm Vickers machine gun mounted on the front of the cockpit, and another Vickers gun placed in the back of the fuselage for defensive cover – features removed for civilian operations. The DH-4 could carry up to 460 lbs of bombs internally, making the cargo payload a more manageable one. The plane was powered by one Roll-Royce Eagle VIII Vee piston engine capable of providing the aircraft with top speeds of just under 143 mph. The de Havilland’s operational range was an improvement over the other aircraft examples utilized by the Postal Service; it could operate at a range of 435 miles without any stops. As soon as they arrived, and after re-fitting, the DH-4 entered front-line service with the Postal Office. This plane was exactly what the mail service was looking for. It could carry a relatively large payload for long distances. But, as with all of the aircraft of the time, it fell victim to the newer, improved and less expensive aircraft coming along.

These two above mentioned aircraft represented a leap forward in aviation design. They were basically a tubular frame covered by sheets of canvas. The first departure from this design concept adopted by the Service was an impressive, albeit, dangerous one. The first US Postal Service all-metal aircraft was Germany’s Junkers JL-6 plane. First developed for military use in March 1917; the aircraft never saw significant combat in the Great War. A civilian version was introduced in the spring of 1919. It were to be the world’s first all metal monoplane use to ferry civilian passengers, doing so from the mid 1920 onward. But the JL-6 was a flawed design. Its electrical wire system was not properly insulated causing the plane to catch fire on mid-air. Many attempts were made to correct the problem, and all were unsuccessful, this fact lead the Postal Service to retire the JL-6 from front line service in the summer of 1921.

Today, the United States Postal Service utilized the latest commercial aircraft available and the best that technology can offer, this with the sole purpose of providing the customer with the best delivery capability the Service can offer. But in pioneer days of aviation, the Service needed to adapt promptly to new technology, new operational system, and by trial and error; they did. These four distinct planes, each of one served the Service in its own capability, proved that the aircraft was indeed, a practical and affordable mean of mail transportation, and on those days, this was a leap forward.

– Raul Colon

 

More information:
Fad to Fundamewntal: Airmail in America
Wiseman-Cooke