CROMIL is an official magazine of the Croatian Ministry of Defence, focusing exclusively on the activities of the Croatian Army and Air Force. Published twice a year, it is entirely in English. It available as a free PDF download from the MORH website. Each 48-page issue is highly illustrated.
|9 AD||New Roman province of Illyricum includes present-day Dalmatia.|
|10 AD||New Roman province of Pannonia includes present-day Slavonia.|
|400-600 AD||Illyricum raided by semi-nomadic invaders – including Goths and Avars.|
|7th C.||Croats start to settle in the Lower Danube valley.|
|925||Croatia becomes an independent kingdom.|
|1091||Croatia conquered by Hungary.|
|1102||Dynastic union with Hungary formed.|
|c. 1450||Weakened Hungary unable to prevent Ottoman occupation of neighbouring Bosnia & Hercegovina. Dalmatia falls under Venetian control.|
|1526||Battle of Mohacs sees the Ottoman Empire defeat Hungary and capture Slavonia.|
|1527||Remaining part of Croatia chooses to accept Hapsburg rule to deter further Ottoman advances.|
|1699||Treaty of Karlowitz restores northern part of Slavonia to Croatia.|
|1797-1815||Dalmatia and Dubrovnik pass to Hapsburg control.|
|1809-1813||Parts of Croatia occupied by Napoleonic France.|
|1848-49||Croatian forces help Austria put down Hungarian revolution.|
|1849||Croatia-Slavonia formed as separate Austrian Crown-land.|
|1868||Croatia-Slavonia becomes autonomous crown-land under Hungary.|
|October 1918||Austro-Hungarian Empire near collapse following major defeats in World War I.|
|29 October 1918||Proclamation of the State Of Slovenes, Croats And Serbs.|
|1 December 1918||Croatia is incorporated into the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.|
|3 October 1929||Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed Yugoslavia.|
|1934||King Alexander assassinated by Croatian separatists.|
|1938||Regional elections won by a Croatian separatist party.|
|1939||Agreement reached on Croatian autonomy.|
|6 April 1941||Yugoslavia is invaded and occupied by the military forces of Germany and its allies.|
|April 1941||Independent State of Croatia established with fascist puppet government.|
|late 1943||Allies begin support of Partisans led by Marshal Tito. (The only resistance group with supporters in all regions of Yugoslavia)|
|May 1945||Independent State of Croatia effectively ceases to exist.|
|29 November 1945||Tito becomes Prime Minister after one-party elections.|
|31 January 1946||New constitution establishes ‘Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia’ with Croatia as one of it’s constituent republics. Monarchy abolished and Soviet-style government established.|
|4 May 1980||Marshal Tito dies. He is succeeded by a collective presidency.|
|April 1990||First multi-party elections held – nationalist party wins.|
|25 June 1991||Croatia declares independence from Yugoslavia.|
|January 1992||Ceasefire declared in independence war.|
|20 March 1994||Ceasefire agreed with Serb rebels controlling self-declared Republic of Krajina.|
|August 1995||Start of Operation Storm – Croatian military offensive to recapture Krajina.|
|January 1998||Croatia resumes control over Eastern Slavonia.|
|2000||Right-wing nationalists defeated in parliamentary elections.|
|February 2003||Croatia formally applies to join European Union.|
|October 2005||EU agrees to start accession talks.|
Present-day Croatia once comprised much of the Roman provinces of Illyricum and Pannonia. With the decline of the Roman Empire after 400 AD the inhabitants were subjected to raids from tribes of nomadic invaders. Ethnic Croats first began to settle in the region in the 7th Century. The Croat people later converted to Roman Catholicism and in 925 Croatia became as independent kingdom under Tomislav. In 1102 Croatia joined with Hungary in a dynastic union, while still retaining a degree of autonomy.
By 1450 Hungary had been seriously weakened by a series of attacks from the expanding Ottoman Empire and the Dalmation coast fell under the control of Venice’s naval empire. Hungary was decisively defeated by the Ottoman Turks in 1526, resulting in the loss of Slavonia to the invaders. In an attempt to forestall further attacks, in 1527 the Croatian nobles voted to accept Hapsburg rule. This move was very successful in preserving Croatia. Under the Austro-Hungarian Hapsburg Empire, Croatia became increasingly westernised, while retaining a degree of autonomy.
In 1848 Croatians helped Austria to put down a revolution in Hungary, and as a result was allowed to form with Slavonia a separate crown land. In 1868 sovereignty of Croatia-Slavonia passed to Hungary as part of the Ausgleich (compromise) agreement. Unfortunately, sustained attempts at ‘Magyarization’ proved very unpopular with the Croatian people.
By October 1918 the Austro-Hungarian Empire was reeling after a series of major defeats in World War I. Seizing the opportunity, on 29 October 1918 Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia proclaimed the establishment of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. When Serbia joined the union on 1 December 1918 it was renamed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The new country was Serb dominated, and Croatia also lost its semi-autonomous status. In 1929 the kingdom was renamed Yugoslavia, but became subject to increasingly authoritarian rule. A Croatian Fascist movement, called Ustasa, began to attack the Serbs, using terrorist methods. In 1934 King Alexander of Yugoslavia was assassinated by Croatian separatists. In 1938 a Croatian separatist party won the regional elections and initiated talks on autonomy with the central government. Limited regional autonomy was granted to Croatia in August 1939, but this only served to antagonise the Serb minority.
Following the German invasion of 6 April 1941, a puppet ‘Independent State of Croatia’ was established by the Ustasa. A systematic murder campaign by the Ustasa claimed more than half a million victims. With Allied support, the communist Partisan resistance group liberated Croatia in 1945 under the leadership of (Croatian) General Tito. By May 1945 the Independent State of Croatia had effectively ceased to exist. On 31 January 1946 the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was established, with Croatia as one of its constituent republics.
From 1960, a tourist boom made Croatia relatively prosperous and fuelled increasing Croatian nationalism. Free elections in April 1990 swept the communists from power. The new nationalist regime declared independence from Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991. This appeared to threaten the safety of the ethnic Serb minority population, which had lived in the Krajina region of Croatia for centuries. The Serb-dominated Yugoslav army and Serb irregulars tried to prevent Croatia from seceding, but failed and instead occupied one third of its territory. A Serbian controlled area which called itself the ‘Republika Srpska Krajina’ was established. From 1993 Croatian forces recaptured all the occupied territory, most notably in Operation ‘Oluja’ (Storm) – a blitzkrieg offensive which resulted in many thousands of Serbs fleeing into Serbia. A peace agreement was signed in 1995, monitored by NATO forces.
In February 2003 Croatia applied to join the European Union and in October 2005 the EU agreed to start accession talks.
The Republic of Croatia is a cresent-shaped state in south-eastern Europe. It is situated in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. It borders Slovenia and Hungary to the north, Bosnia and Hercegovina and Serbia to the east, and the Adriatic Sea to the south. It is made up of the territories of Dalmatia, Slavonia and most of Istria. The northeast of the country is mostly flat and fertile, while the southwestern part is more rugged and includes the Dinaric Alps. It occupies a land area of 56,558 sq km (21,829 sq miles) and has a population of 4.5 million inhabitants (in 2000). In the 1991 census the population comprised 78% ethnic Croats, 12% Serbs and 1% Slavic Muslims and 9% others. More than 76% are Catholics, 11% are Orthodox Christians, and 1% are Muslims, with 12% other faiths. The capital city is Zagreb.
Further National Information
Text to be added on the development of aviation in Croatia.
Civil Aircraft Registrations
Upon independence in 1991, the Yugoslav registration prefix ‘YU-‘ was painted out, eg: on An-2 BOW.
An unofficial registration prefix of RC-xxx (for Republic of Croatia) was introduced, with the xxx allocation unchanged.
The formally allocated registration prefix ‘9A-‘ has been used since 1993?, eg: 9A-CTA.
A partial 9A- register listing can be found here.
Military Air Arms
Current military air arms-
Air Force (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovsto i Protuzracna Obrana)
Historical military air arms-
Air Force [1941-1945]
Central Government Agencies
Government Aviation [1991-2001, now disbanded]
Public Service Aviation
Medical Aviation (HIKO)
Police Aviation (MUP)
No organisations known.
Aircraft Maintenance/Repair Depots
The former ZMAJ (dragon) overhaul facility at Velika Gorica, near Pleso, is now called ZTZ.
Civil Airports & Airfields
Military Air Bases & Airfields
There is a Republic P-47 in the Zagreb Technical Museum.
Magazines Guide for Croatia
Croatian Aviation Bibliography – to be added.
Croatian Aviation: Airlines, Airports, Aero Clubs, Accidents etc
The title translates as Croatian Soldier. This magazine originally appeared in November 1991 as a fortnightly newsletter published by the Croatian Ministry of Defence (Ministarstvo Obrane Republike Hrvatske). The ISSN was 1330-500X. In May 1995 it was relaunched as a glossy monthly military journal – with 11 issues per year. The ISSN for this version was 1333-9036.
After reaching combined issue number 109/110 July-August 2004, the magazine was again relaunched as a fortnightly, but retaining the high quality editorial style of the monthly. Issue numbering commenced at No.1 again with the 1st October 2004 issue. The ISSN reverted to the previous code, 1330-500X. Four issues per year are combined double issues, in June-July and December-January.
‘Hrvatski Vojnik’ covers a wide range of defence issues, with more than half of the pages devoted to subjects outside of Croatia. All versions of the magazine are very well written and illustrated, and include good coverage of the Croatian Air Force.
Croatia’s first aviation magazine, launched in April 2007 and published bi-monthly. It covers the full range of aviation activities, from military and commercial aviation to private and sport flying. Aimed at professionals and aviation enthusiasts, the feature articles are very well illustrated and cover aviation topics in the local region as well as further abroad. Each 100 page A4 size issue is printed on high quality paper.
This is a survey of Croatian aviation, defence and aircraft scale modelling magazines. All magazines are Croatian text only, unless otherwise stated.