at RAF St Athan. (photo, Keith McKenzie)
[This profile covers the fighter and attack variants of the Junkers Ju 88, bomber and reconnaissance variants will be covered separately.]
By the middle of 1944, the night fighter force had become the strongest and most efficient arm of the Luftwaffe, comprising almost fifteen per cent of its first line strength. From May 1940 onwards, the appearance of ever increasing numbers of RAF bombers at night over Germany had forced the Luftwaffe to set up a powerful night air defence organisation which soon became involved in a bitter see-saw battle for supremacy in the night sky. The Junkers Ju 88 night-fighter was a key weapon in this crucial battle. From 1944 until the end of the war, Ju 88s equipped the vast majority of Nachtjagd units, and constant development of the airframe and of numerous electronic aids maintained its reputation as a formidable fighting machine until the very end.
The Junkers Ju 88 first arose from a German Air Ministry requirement for a dedicated high-speed medium bomber. In a calculated move, Junkers temporarily recruited two engineers from America to help design the new aircraft. W.H. Evers and Alfred Grossner applied their considerable expertise in modern aircraft structural design to produce in the Ju 88 a remarkably efficient and adaptable design. The first prototype (D-AQEN) flew on 21 December 1936, and subsequent testing of additional prototypes confirmed its excellent performance. A production order followed and Luftwaffe service testing commenced early in 1939.
The performance of the prototype had generated early interest in adapting the type for other roles, and one of the first roles considered was that of Zerstörer (heavy-fighter). The Luftwaffe concept of a twin-engined high-speed long-range day fighter was widely shared by other European air forces at the time. Accordingly, in early summer 1939, Junkers modified the Ju 88 V7 prototype to include a forward-firing armament of two 20 mm MG FF cannon and two 7.9 mm MG 17 machine-guns located in a modified nose section partially covered by metal plates. The underfuselage gondola was also removed and the crew reduced to three. Powered by two 1,200 hp Junkers Jumo 211B-1 engines, the unmodified Ju 88 V7 had first flown on 27 September 1938, and was soon back in the air testing the new armament. The new fighter offered a maximum speed similar to that of the much smaller Messerschmitt Bf 110, but with three times the range, and the type was ordered into limited production.
A small batch of early production Ju 88A-1 bombers were converted into Ju 88C-0s during July and August 1939, and used operationally during the invasion of Poland by the Zerstörerstaffel of KG 30 for long-range ground-attack. It was initially planned that the subsequent production variants would be the the Ju 88C-1 with 1,600 hp BMW 801MA air-cooled radials, and the Ju 88C-2 with liquid-cooled 1,200 hp Jumo 211B-1 engines behind annular radiators. In the event, the BMW 801 engines were reserved for the new Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter and the C-1 and the proposed C-3 derivative were abandoned. The first production model was thus the C-2 with an armament of one 20 mm MG FF cannon and three 7.9 mm MG 17 machine-guns in a new smooth metal nose section. These aircraft were converted on the production line, and retained the ventral gondola. The C-2s were used for more than a year for coastal and anti-shipping patrol, before another role appeared.
From May 1940, the RAF began to attack Germany regularly by night and it was quickly realised that anti-aircraft guns alone would not be able to defend Germany adequately. Accordingly, the Zerstörerstaffel of KG 30 was reinforced with additional Ju 88C-2s and redesignated II/NJG 1 in July, joining the newly established night-fighter force under General Kammhuber. The Gruppe specialised in conducting night intruder operations – hunting RAF bombers over British aerodromes identified by radio intercepts. On 11 September 1940, the Gruppe was redesignated I/NJG 2. The small number of intruder aircraft available was hopelessly inadequate to counter the ever increasing threat from Bomber Command, and the perceived lack of results led to Hitler ordering the end of further intruder operations on 12 October 1941. I/NJG 2 was soon transferred to Sicily for intruder operations over Malta and the Mediterranean.
In the mean time, a new Zerstörer variant had been developed, the Ju 88C-4. This was similar to the C-2, but used the improved airframe of the Ju 88A-4, featuring increased overall wing span from 60 ft 3¼ in (18.37 m) to 65 ft 7½ in (20.0 m) and a sturdier undercarriage. Other improvements included more armour protection for the crew and an extra 7.9 mm MG 15 machine-gun in the rear of the offset ventral gondola. The Junkers Jumo 211B-2 powered C-4 was the first C-series model produced as new-build and not by conversion. Production numbers of the C-4 remained relatively low compared to the bomber variants. A modified version, the Ju 88C-6 was operated by V/KG40 from September 1942 to counter RAF Coastal Command operations against U-boats in the Bay of Biscay. Later the Gruppe was absorbed into ZG 1 but disbanded in June 1944. Other C-6s were used for train-busting on the Russian Front in 1943.
Early in 1942, the new FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1 radar was experimentally fitted to four of NJG 1s Ju 88C night-fighters. The cumbersome ‘stags antlers’ aerial array reduced maximum speed by 15-25 mph and so the reaction of crews was initially unfavourable, until a number of kills were scored using it. The introduction of radar on the Ju 88C-6 resulted in a designation change to Ju 88C-6b, while existing day-fighter aircraft were retrospectively redesignated Ju 88C-6a. The initial radar fit was the FuG 202 Lichtenstein BC, but by the Autumn of 1942 this had been replaced by the simplified FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1. In a parallel development, the Ju 88R-series of night fighters differed from the Ju 88C-6b mainly in having BMW 801 engines.
The ‘Himmelbett’ defensive system of ground controllers directing night-fighters to within visual range of a their targets was now well established, and the introduction of radar made the last phase of an intercept much easier. Previously quite scarce in the Nachtjagd (most Ju 88Cs were still in the Mediterranean), the Ju 88 now began to equip an increasing number of night-fighter units. Night-fighters were meant to keep to their assigned control sector, but when it was found that a narrow bomber stream would saturate the relatively thin ‘Kammhuber line’ of defensive sectors, a more free-ranging ‘Zahme Sau’ technique – whereby some night-fighters would join and follow bomber stream – was introduced. The long-range Ju 88C-6b and Ju 88R-1 were particularly suited to this role, and began to equip many units. A major set-back for the night-fighters was the use of ‘Window’ jamming by the RAF, first introduced on 24/25 July 1943. This rendered existing ground and airborne radars useless, and it wasn’t until October 1943 that the Ju 88C-6c appeared with a FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 radar which operated on a different frequency. In the meantime, ‘Zahme Sau’ tactics dominated, with night-fighters using FuG 227 Flensburg which homed-in on Allied bomber ‘Monica’ tail-warning radars. By April 1944, the Ju 88C-6c equipped almost the entire Nachtjagd.
In the Summer of 1942, the war on the Russian Front had meanwhile highlighted a need for dedicated ground-attack/tank-buster aircraft. Among the possible solutions was a Ju 88C-4 experimentally fitted with a Nebelwerfer recoilless rocket launcher. This weapon reassembled a six-barrelled gatling gun and the modified aircraft was unofficially known as the Ju 88N or Ju 88Nbwe. Trials of this weapon were soon abandoned in favour of the Ju 88P series. The Ju 88P V1 was a modified Ju 88A-4, with a large belly fairing housing a 75 mm KwK 39 cannon firing forward and two MG 81Z machine-guns at the rear. Trials were relatively successful and a small number of Ju 88P-1 production aircraft were ordered. The Ju 88P-1 featured a Ju 88C solid nose, armour protection for the engines and a 75 mm PaK 40L cannon with a big muzzle brake. The type was issued to a few units in 1943 for operational testing, but proved very unwieldy and vulnerable to enemy fighters. Effectiveness was reduced by the gun’s slow rate of fire. Two further versions, the Ju 88P-2 with two 37 mm BK 3.7 Fak 18 canon and the Ju 88P-3 with increased armour protection were only completed in small numbers. The final tank-buster variant was the Ju 88P-4 with a single 50 mm Bk 5 cannon in a much smaller belly fairing. All four variants saw active service on the Eastern Front in 1944. Some were used as train-busters, while a small number of P-2s were tried as night-fighters and day interceptors against USAAF bomber formations – proving to be completely unsuitable.
The introduction of increasingly heavier armament, more armour, and a radar operator had a detrimental affect on the low-speed handling qualities of the overburdened Ju 88C series, and it was becoming apparent that the development of a specialised Ju 88 night-fighter model was now necessary to restore lost performance and safe handling. In 1943, a Ju 88R-2 was experimentally fitted with the enlarged squared-off tail unit of the Ju 188, becoming the Ju 88 V58. A completely revised armament fit was introduced. Two MG 151/20 cannon were housed in the right-hand side of the nose, and four more located in a ventral tray under the left side of the belly. Designated Ju 88G V1, the new version first flew in June 1943 and served as the prototype for a new series of night-fighters. The Ju 88G-0 pre-production aircraft differed from the prototype in deleting the nose mounted MG 151 cannon, as they blinded the pilot at night. The increased power of the 1,700 hp BMW 801D radials helped restore much of the type’s good handling qualities. The Ju 88G-1 was the first series production version, essentially the same as the G-0. The new model rapidly replaced the Ju 88C from the middle of 1944, many with FuG 227 Flensburg which homed in on British ‘Monica’ tail warning radar. The next production version was the Ju 88G-6a, similar to the G-1 but with two 1,700 hp BMW 801G engines. The Ju 88G-6b carried the FuG 350 Naxos Z radio equipment which homed-in on bomber H2S blind-bombing radar emissions, larger fuel tanks and two MG 151/20 cannon in a ‘Schräge Musik’ installation firing obliquely upwards and forwards from the upper fuselage – usually at an angle of 70 degrees. The pilot simply formated under the bomber and fired upwards in an easy zero-deflection shot.
The final production G series model was the Ju 88G-7, powered by two Jumo 213E engines with MW-50 power boosting to 1,800 hp on take-off. The Ju 88G-7a had FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 radar, while the Ju 88G-7b had FuG 218 Neptune V radar with either the standard ‘toasting fork’ aerials or a Morgenstern array enclosed in a pointed wooden nose cone. The G-7c had FuG 240 Berlin N-1 centimetric radar with the scanner enclosed in a plywood nose cone. Only ten G-7c were completed, before the end of the war.
In the last few months of the war, a number of G-1 airframes were converted to act as the warhead portion of the Mistel flying bomb. Pilotless missile steered by the fighter mounted on top. A Focke-Wulf Fw 190 was mounted above the Ju 88 to guide it towards the target, before releasing at the last moment. Some isolated successes were scored in attacking bridges.
Immediately after the end of the war, Allied intelligence teams rapidly moved into Germany to secure examples of all the latest aircraft. A significant number of Ju 88G series aircraft were brought back to France, Britain and the USA for thorough evaluation. All of these machines were later scrapped. It does not appear that any example of the Ju 88G reached the Soviet union.
Derived from undoubtedly the most versatile German combat aircraft of WW2, the Ju 88 night-fighter was a refined and formidable aircraft, with a powerful armament, excellent agility and advanced electronic sensors. It is therefore appropriate that Ju 88 night-fighters destroyed more Allied night bombers in WW2 than all other fighters combined.
|The crew of D5+EV defected to the Allies on 9 May 1943.|
|(both photos, Keith McKenzie)|
Requirement Specification: not known
Manufacturers Designation: Ju 88
|Ju 88C V1||Prototype Zerstörer. Conversion of Ju 88 V7. Four crew, two 1,200 hp (895 kW) Jumo 211B-1 liquid-cooled engines, three MG 15s plus internal bomb load.|
|Ju 88C-0||Pre-production version of Zerstörer. Conversions of Ju 88A-1 aircraft.|
|Ju 88C-1||Planned production version of C-0 with two 1,600 hp BMW 801MA air-cooled radial engines. Conversion of A-1 with three MG 17 machine-guns and one 20 mm MG FF cannon. None completed.|
|Ju 88C-2||Initial production version for Zerstörer role. Modified Ju 88A-1 with new non-glazed nose, two 1,200 hp Jumo 211B-1 engines, 3 crew, three fixed forward-firing 7.9 mm MG 17 machine-guns and one 20 mm MG FF cannon, plus two defensive 7.9 mm MG 15 machine-guns in dorsal and ventral positions. Maximum bomb load 1,102 lb (550 kg).|
|Ju 88C-3||Modified C-2 with two 1,600 hp BMW 801MA engines. One conversion.|
|Ju 88C-4||Zerstörer/reconnaissance version. Modified Ju 88A-4 with solid nose, two Jumo 211F-1 engines, increased armament to two 20 mm MG FF cannon in ventral gondola (swapped for cameras in recce role), extra 7.9 mm MG 15 in rear of gondola, more crew armour protection, increased weight, strengthened undercarriage. First new-build version.|
|Ju 88C-4/R||Late production model of C-4 with 1,340 hp (1,000 kW) Jumo 211J-1 or J-2 engines.|
|Ju 88C-5||Zerstörer version. Improved C-4 with two 1,700 hp (1268 kW) BMW 801D-2, 3 crew, ventral gondola replaced by ‘Waffentropfen’ weapon pack below fuselage with two MG 17s and MG FF cannon replaced by MG 151. 10 pre-production examples only.|
|Ju 88C-6a||Day-Zerstörer version. Modified C-4 with two Jumo 211J-1 or J-2 engines, increased armour plating, fixed armament of three 7.9 mm MG 17s and one 20 mm MG FF cannon in the nose plus two MG FF in re-introduced ventral gondola plus one defensive MG 15 or MG 131. Various armament modifications.|
|Ju 88C-6b||Night-fighter version. Designation applied retroactively to C-6a when fitted with FuG 202 Lichtenstein BC or (by Autumn 1942) FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1 radar. New HF radio.|
|Ju 88C-6c||As C-6b with FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 plus (some models) Lichtenstein C-1, defensive armament one MG 131, some later with two oblique upward-firing 20 mm MG 151s in dorsal ‘Schräge Musik’ installation. Some with Jumo 211H turbocharged engines.|
|Ju 88C-7a||Intruder version with two Jumo 211J-1 engines, 2-3 crew, ventral gondola replaced by jettisonable ventral weapon pack with two MG FF/M, three fixed forward-firing MG 17s, max bomb load 1,102 lb (500 kg).|
|Ju 88C-7b||As C-7a with underwing bomb-racks, max bomb load 3,305 lb (1,500 kg).|
|Ju 88C-7c||Zerstörer version, modified C-7a, two 1,600 hp BMW 801MA engines, three MG 17 and one MG 151 in nose plus two MG FF in weapon pack, no bomb racks. Pre-production batch only.|
|Ju 88P V1||Anti-tank prototype. Modified A-4 with one 75 mm KwK 39 anti-tank cannon forward plus twin 7.9 mm MG 81Z aft of large ventral fairing. Two 1,340 hp Jumo 211J engines.|
|Ju 88P-1||Production model of Ju 88P V1 with solid unglazed nose, KwK 39 replaced by 75 mm PaK 40 anti-tank cannon, 2 or 3 crew, one forward firing MG 81 for sighting of cannon plus two twin MG 81Zs.|
|Ju 88P-2||As P-1 with two 37 mm BK 3.7 (Flak 38) cannon in large ventral fairing. A-4 conversions.|
|Ju 88P-3||As P-2 with increased armour plating, two Jumo 211H engines. A-4 conversions.|
|Ju 88P-4||Heavy fighter/anti-tank version, two Jumo 211J-2 engines, offensive armament reduced to single 50 mm BK 5 cannon, shortened ventral fairing. One aircraft fitted with 22-shot launcher for RZ 65 rockets, for testing.|
|Ju 88R-1||Night-fighter version. Re-engined C-6b with two 1,600 hp BMW 801MA or 801C engines and FuG 212 Lichenstein C-1 radar. Three MG 17 and one 20 mm MG 151/20 in nose plus two MG FF in ventral gondola.|
|Ju 88R-2||Version of R-1 with two 1,700 hp BMW 801D and the addition of FuG 202 Lichtenstein BC plus FuG 217 Neptun R tail-warning radar. Some also fitted with FuG 350 Naxos Z passive radar.|
|Ju 88G V1||Prototype of improved night-fighter version. Modified Ju 88R-2 with two 1,700 hp BMW 801D engines, 3 crew, two fixed MG 151s in fuselage nose and four fixed MG 151/20s in ventral gun tray plus one 13 mm MG 131 at rear of cockpit, FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1 radar.|
|Ju 88G-0||Pre-production night-fighter version. Reduced armament (four MG 151/20), FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 radar, more angular fin and rudder shape.|
|Ju 88G-1||Production version of G-0. BMW 801D engines. Some modified equipment, four MG 151s in ventral gun tray; Lichtenstein SN-2 radar plus FuG-227 Flensburg homing receiver.|
|Ju 88G-2||Version of G-1 with revised equipment. Production cancelled.|
|Ju 88G-3||Project only.|
|Ju 88G-4||Improved version of G-1. Small equipment changes. Some with two oblique upward-firing 20 mm MG 151 in dorsal ‘Schräge Musik’ installation.|
|Ju 88G-5||Version of G-1 with revised equipment. Project only.|
|Ju 88G-6a||Version of G-4. Dorsal ‘Schräge Musik’ installation now standard with two 20 mm MG 151/20s. Two 1,700 hp BMW 801G engines, improved equipment. Aft facing antenna for SN-2 introduced.|
|Ju 88G-6b||As for G-6a , addition of FuG 350 Naxos Z in cockpit roof, increased fuel capacity.|
|Ju 88G-6c||Two 1,750 hp (1,306 kW) Jumo 213A, reduced fuel capacity, ‘Schräge Musik’ installation moved to just aft of cockpit.|
|Ju 88G-7a||Introduced pointed wing tips from Ju 188, span increased to 72 ft 2 in?, two 1,725 hp Jumo 213E with MW 50 power booster, very broad propeller blades, 3 crew, FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 radar.|
|Ju 88G-7b||As G-7a with FuG 228 Lichtenstein SN-3 or FuG 218 Neptun VR radar (as Ju 88G-7n), some with pointed wooden nose cone.|
|Ju 88G-7c||As for G-7a with FuG 240 Berlin N-1a radar in blunt wooden nose cone. No external aerials.|
|Ju 88G-8||Long range Zerstörer. As for G-7 but with fuselage of H-2.|
|Ju 88G-10||Similar to G-8 but used for Mistel programme.|
|Ju 88G-12||Developed into the Ju 188R series.|
|Ju 88H-2||Long range fighter version of Ju 88H-1 reconnaissance aircraft. Based on stretched Ju 88D-1 fuselage with Ju 88G-1 wings and engines. Two 20 mm MG 151 cannon in solid nose and four more in belly pack. No radar.|
|Ju 88N||Unofficial designation for one Ju 88C-4 fitted with Nebelwerfer rocket launcher.|
|Mistel 2||Composite flying bomb with Fw 190A-6 (or Fw 190F-8) upper stage and Ju 88G-1 lower stage. Cockpit section replaced by bolt-on shaped charge warhead.|
|Mistel S2||Trainer conversion of Mistel 2.|
|Mistel 3C||Composite flying bomb with Fw 190A-8 and Ju 88G-10. Project only.|
|Two views of the FuG 202 Lichtenstein BC ‘toasting fork’ radar antenna on the Ju 88R-1|
|(both photos, Keith McKenzie)|
|Key Dates:||(All Ju 88 references are very vague on precise dates)|
|15 January 1936||Start of Ju 88 project design|
|21 December 1936||Ju 88 V1 first flight|
|27 September 1938||Ju 88 V7 first flight (to Ju 88A-0 standard)|
|summer 1939||Ju 88 V7 converted to Zerstorer configuration as Ju 88C prototype|
|July 1939||Ju 88C-0 first flight|
|July-August 1939||First batch of Ju 88C-0s converted|
|September 1939||First operational use of Ju 88C-0 (by Zst./KG30)|
|late 1940||First delivery of Ju 88C-2 production version to Luftwaffe (to Zst./KG30)|
|17 July 1940||Luftwaffe Nightfighter force established|
|July 1940||First delivery of Ju 88C-2 variant|
|July 1940||Zst./KG30 becomes II/NJG 1|
|11 September 1940||II/NJG 1 redesignated I/NJG 2|
|December 1940||First delivery of Ju 88C-4 variant|
|12 October 1941||Night intruder operations over Britain prohibited|
|December 1941||I/NJG 2 transferred to Sicily|
|early 1942||First test radar fitted to a Ju 88C|
|April 1942||I/NJG 2 transferred to North Africa|
|mid 1942||Ju 88C-6a first flight|
|Summer 1942||Ju 88P V1 conversion of Ju 88A-4|
|late 1942||First production version with radar: Ju 88C-6b|
|early 1943||Ju 88R-1 deliveries start|
|June 1943||Ju 88 V58 converted from Ju 88R-2 as Ju 88G prototype|
|October 1943||Ju 88C-6c introduced with FuG 220 radar not susceptible to original ‘Window’ jamming|
|Spring 1944||First production Ju 88G-1 first flight|
|May 1944||Ju 88G-1 enters service|
|mid 1944||Ju 88G-6a first flight|
|3 March 1945||Mass night intruder operation over Britain|
|Germany – Luftwaffe||(28+ Night fighter Gruppes ; 6+ Zerstorer Gruppes; various Misc. units)|
|France – Air Force||(3+ Ju 88G-6 and 1+ Ju 88R-1 captured)|
|UK – Royal Air Force||(1 Ju 88R-1 with No.1426 (Enemy Aircraft) Flight)|
|UK – Royal Air Force||(1 Ju 88R-1, 1 Ju 88G-1 & 4 Ju 88G-6 with the Central Fighter Establishment)|
|USA – USAAF||(1 captured Ju 88G-6 for evaluation by ATI)|
|UK – RAE Farnborough||(1 Ju 88R-1, 1 Ju 88G-1 and 8+ Ju 88G-6 for evaluation)|
|UK – Chemical Warfare Establishment||(2+ Ju 88G for trials)|
|UK – Radio Warfare Establishment/BDSU||(2 Ju 88G-6 for trials)|
|France – Arsenal de l’Aeronautique||(3+ Ju 88G-6 ex-AdlA for missile testing)|
|Junkers Ju 88C-6c|
|Dimensions: Length 47 ft 1.25 in (14.36 m); Height 16 ft 7.5 in (5.06 m); Wing Span 65 ft 7.5 in (20.0 m); Wing Area 586.63sq ft (54.5 sq m)|
|Engine(s): Two liquid cooled, 12 cylinder inverted-Vee, Junkers Jumo 211J-1 (or J-2) of 1,340 hp (? kW) each.|
|Weights: Empty Equipped 19,973 lb (9,060 kg); Normal Take-off 27,227 lb (12,350 kg); Maximum Take-off ? lb (? kg)|
|Performance: Maximum level speed 303 mph (488 kph) at 19,685 ft (6,000 m); Cruising speed 263 mph (423 kph) at same altitude; Time to 19,685 ft (6,000 m) 12 min 42 sec; Service ceiling 32,480 ft (9,900 m); Normal range on internal fuel 1,230 mls (1,980 km).|
|Armament: Three fixed forward-firing 20mm MG FF/M cannon and three fixed forward-firing 7.9mm MG 17 machine guns in lower nose section, one flexible 13 mm MG 131 machine-gun at rear of cockpit. Optional ‘Schräge Musik’ installation in upper fuselage with two 20 mm MG 151 cannon firing obliquely forward|
|Junkers Ju 88G-1|
|Dimensions:Length (excluding radar) 47 ft 8.5 in (14.54 m), (including SN-2 aerials) 54 ft 1.5 in (16.50 m); Height 15 ft 11 in (4.85 m); Wing Span 65 ft 7.5 in (20.0 m); Wing Area 586.63sq ft (54.5 sq m)|
|Engine(s): Two 14 cylinder, air cooled, BMW 801D-2 radials of 1,700 hp (1268 kW) each.|
|Weights: Empty Equipped 20,020 lb (9,081 kg); Normal Take-off 28,870 lb (13,095 kg); Maximum Take-off 32,385 lb (14,690 kg)|
|Performance: Maximum level speed 356 mph (573 kph) at 27,890 ft (8,500 m) with SN-2 but no upward-firing guns, 342 mph (550 kph) at same altitude with ‘Schräge Musik’ installation; Service ceiling 29,000 ft (8,840 m); Normal range 1,553 mls (2,500 km); Maximum endurance on internal fuel 4.75 hours.|
|Armament: Four fixed forward-firing 20mm MG 151 cannon in ventral tray with 200 rounds each and one flexible 13 mm MG 131 machine-gun at rear of cockpit with 500 rounds. Optional ‘Schräge Musik’ installation in upper fuselage with two 20 mm MG 151 cannon firing obliquely forward|
|Junkers Ju 88G-7b|
|Dimensions:Length (excluding radar) 47 ft 8.5 in (14.54 m); Height 15 ft 11 in (4.85 m); Wing Span 65 ft 7.5 in (20.0 m); Wing Area 586.63sq ft (54.5 sq m)|
|Engine(s): Two liquid cooled, 12 cylinder inverted-Vee, Junkers Jumo 213E of 1,725 hp (? kW) each.|
|Weights: Empty Equipped 20,503 lb (9,300 kg); Normal Take-off 28,885 lb (13,100 kg); Maximum Take-off 32,353 lb (14,675 kg)|
|Performance: Maximum level speed 270 mph (434 kph) at sea level, 363 mph (585 kph) at 33,500 ft (10,200 m), 389 mph (626 kph) at 29,529 ft (9,000 m) with MW-50 emergency boost; Cruising speed 348 mph (560 kph) at 29,529 ft (9,000 m); Initial rate of climb 1640 ft/min (500 m/min); Time to 30,185 ft (9,200 m) 26 min 24 sec; Service ceiling 32,810 ft (10,000 m); Normal range 1,398 mls (2,250 km); Endurance (at maximum economical cruising speed) 3.72 hours at 29,800 ft (9,083 m).|
|Armament: Four fixed forward-firing 20mm MG 151 cannon in ventral tray with 200 rounds each, two fixed oblique upward-firing 20mm MG 151 cannon in dorsal ‘Schräge Musik’ position with 200 rounds each, one flexible 13 mm MG 131 machine-gun at rear of cockpit with 500 rounds.|
Head of Design Team: Ernst Zindel (Structural design by W.H. Evers & Alfred Gassner)
Design Office: Junkers Flugzeug und Motorwerke AG, Dessau
Ju 88 Fighter Production by Year:
* = Conversions only, not new-build.
** = Converted on the production line.
Junkers Ju 88 Production Locations:
Arado at Brandenburg-Neuendorf (A-series bombers only, Nov 1939-Mar 1942 + wings only until Aug 1942)
ATG at Leipzig-Mockau (fuselages & tails, not wings + final assembly 1940-June 1944)
Dornier (North) at Wismar (A-series fuselages and tails, 1939-Jan 1942)
Dornier (South) at Friedrischshafen (A-series bombers only, 1939-Dec 1940)
Heinkel at Oranienburg (complete aircraft 1940-Aug 1942, wings only until March 1943)
Henschel at Berlin-Schönefeld (complete aircraft from mid 1939, night-fighters only 1944-Feb 1945)
Junkers at Bernburg (all variants 1938-1945)
(Fuselages from Aschersleben, wings from Halberstadt, tails from Leopoldshall with assembly at Bernburg)
Siebel at Halle (wings and final assembly, early 1940 – April 1944)
Also factories in Czechoslovakia and France by 1944
Major sub-assemblies produced by Volkswagen at Wolfsburg (tail units for Junkers until mid 1944) and AEG at ?? (tail units for Arado & others until mid 1944).
|Version||Quantity||Assembly Location||Time Period|
|Ju 88C V1||1 a/c converted||?||summer 1939|
|Ju 88C-0||few A-1 converted||?||Jul-Aug 1939|
|Ju 88C-2||62+ A-1 converted||?||early Summer 1940-end 1940|
|Ju 88C-3||1 C-2 converted||?||1941|
|Ju 88C-4||<100 new build||?||Sept 1941-spring 1942|
|Ju 88C-5||10||?||early 1942|
|Ju 88C-6a||)||?||spring 1942|
|Ju 88C-6b||)2,500+||?||late 1942|
|Ju 88C-6c||)||?||Oct 1943-June 1944|
|Ju 88C-7a||?||?||late 1943|
|Ju 88C series total||c. 3,200*||–||–|
|Ju 88P V1||1 conv A-4||?||Summer 1942|
|Ju 88P-1||? conv A-4||?||1943|
|Ju 88P-2||? conv A-4||?||?|
|Ju 88P-3||? conv A-4||?||?|
|Ju 88P-4||32 conv A-4||?||1944|
|Ju 88P series total||?||–||–|
|Ju 88R-1||?||?||early 1943-early 1944|
|Ju 88R series total||?||–||–|
|Ju 88G V1||1 R-2 converted||?||spring 1943|
|Ju 88G-1||?||?||spring 1944|
|Ju 88G-7a||?||?||late 1944|
|Ju 88G-7b||?||?||Feb 1945|
|Ju 88G-7c||10||?||spring 1945|
|Ju 88G series total||c. 800||–||–|
* = includes R-series total.
Total Produced: 15,018 a/c (All variants)
To be added.
‘Junkers Ju 88 – Star Of The Luftwaffe’
by Manfred Griehl
Published by Arms & Armour Press, Sept 1990 ISBN: 1 85409 043 7
* History and technical development of each variant.
‘Junkers Ju 88’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Ron Mackay
Published by The Crowood Press, Oct 2001 ISBN: 1 86126 431 3
* Comprehensive history of Ju 88.
‘Junkers Ju 88 Over All Fronts’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Joachim Stein
Published by Schiffer Publishing, 1991 ISBN: 0 88740 3123
* Pictorial history of the Ju 88.
‘Junkers Ju 88 In Action Vol 2: Aircraft in Action No.113’
by Brian Filley
Published by Squadron/Signal Publications, July 1991 ISBN: 0 89747 258 6
* Traces the development of the fighter versions. Very well illustrated.
‘The Junkers Ju 88 Night Fighters: Profile No.148’
by Alfred Price
Published by Profile Publications Ltd, 1967 ISBN: n/a
* Concise well illustrated history of the Ju 88C/G variants.
‘German Night Fighter Aces Of World War 2: Osprey Aircraft Of The Aces – 20 [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Jerry Scutts
Published by Osprey Publishing, 1998 ISBN: 1 85532 696 5
* Covers the development, tactics and leading aces of the Luftwaffe night fighter force. Some factual errors.
‘Nachtjagd-The Night Fighter Versus Bomber War Over The Third Reich 1939-1945’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Theo Boiten
Published by The Crowood Press, June 1997 ISBN: 1 86126 086 5
* Traces the parallel development of RAF night bombing and Luftwaffe night fighting during WW2. Very well written.
To be added.
Junkers Ju 88 Image Archive
(26 Ju 88 photos, including fighter versions)
(Several good pictures of a Ju 88G)
Junkers Ju 88 Gallery
(Several Ju 88 photos – mostly the bomber version)
Junkers Ju 88
(Concise coverage of the fighter versions)
Warbirds Resource Group – Junkers Ju 88
(Specifications for main versions, including C-6 and G-7b)
WW2 Warbirds: The Junkers Ju 88
(Specifications for main versions and summary table of each different version)
Inspection of Crashed or Captured Enemy Aircraft – Junkers Ju 88
(PDF file of 16th July 1944 official intelligence report)
Flight Simulator Models:
To be added.
To be added.
‘Junkers Ju 88: Model Art No.444’
Published by Model Art, 1995 ISBN: n/a
* Superbly illustrated modellers guide from Japan.
‘Junkers Ju 88: Aero Detail 20’
Published by Aero Detail, 199? ISBN: n/a
* Another well illustrated modellers guide from Japan.
‘Luftwaffe – Junkers Ju 88’ [Order this video from Amazon UK]
DD Video, Catalogue Number: DD590
* Film profile of the type.