Lockheed Martin F-16C/D Fighting Falcon

in Royal Bahraini Air Force Service

History

Eight F-16C Block 40 fighters and four F-16D Block 40 two-seat trainers ordered in March 1987 (Letter of Agreement signed) under programme Peace Crown I. The first aircraft was accepted in the USA in March 1990 and arrived in Bahrain in May 1990. The remaining aircraft were delivered by September 1990. An additional four were offered by the US in mid 1988, but not accepted. After considering refurbished surplus USAF F-16A/B aircraft, a Letter of Offer and Acceptance for ten more single-seat F-16C Block 40 (not Block 50) aircraft was signed in April 1998, under Peace Crown II. The first aircraft was handed over by Lockheed Martin on 22 June 2000. Deliveries commenced in late 2000. Options on two more aircraft were included in the deal. The new aircraft were the same Block 40 configuration as the aircraft from Peace Crown I, with the addition of new equipment items. These included a color cockpit TV system, APG-68(V)8 radar, LANTIRN targeting pod and AIM-120 advanced medium range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM) capability. Both batches are General Electric F110-GE-100 powered. The first batch aircraft are to be upgraded with APG-68(V)8 radars to allow the use of AMRAAM by the entire F-16 fleet. Used by 1st and 2nd Fighter Squadrons for interceptor fighter duties. (Note correct US serials for Peace Crown II aircraft, not as printed in some sources).

Individual Details

Serial c/no. Prev. Identity Delivered Fate/Notes
101 AC1 90-0028 1990  
103 AC2 90-0029 1990  
105 AC3 90-0030 1990  
107 AC4 90-0031 1990  
109 AC5 90-0032 1990  
111 AC6 90-0033 1990  
113 AC7 90-0034 1990  
115 AC8 90-0035 1990  
150 AD1 90-0036 1990 F-16D
152 AD2 90-0037 1990 F-16D
154 AD3 90-0038 Apr 1990 F-16D
156 AD4 90-0039 1990 F-16D
201 AC9 98-2021 Oct 2000  
202 AC10 98-2022 Oct 2000  
203 AC11 98-2023 Oct 2000  
204 AC12 98-2024 Oct 2000 w/o 23 Sept 2004
205 AC13 98-2025 Oct 2000  
206 AC14 98-2026 2000  
207 AC15 98-2027 2000  
208 AC16 98-2028 2001  
209 AC17 98-2029 2001  
210 AC18 98-2030 2001  

Pictures


F-16C 115 (photo, Eric Stijger via Code One)

More Information

References

  • Lockheed Martin press release June 22, 2000
  • World Air Power Journal Vol 3 Autumn 1990 p.5
  • World Air Power Journal Vol 5 Spring 1991 p.100
  • World Air Power Journal Vol 24 Spring 1996 p.122
  • World Air Power Journal Vol 26 Autumn 1996 p.112-113
  • World Air Power Journal Vol 31 Winter 1997 p.10
  • World Air Power Journal Vol 34 Autumn 1998 p.7
  • World Air Power Journal Vol 35 Winter 1998 p.8
  • World Air Forces Directory 2004/05 (Mach III)
  • World Air Forces Directory 2009/10 (Mach III)
  • F-16.net

Other Sources

To be added.

Lockheed Martin X-35

Aircraft Profile
Lockheed Martin X-35A
(photo, Lockheed Martin)

Development

In aiming to use advanced technology to provide a leap forward in operational fighter capability and at the same time substantially reduce manufacturing costs, the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) programme has ambitious goals. For the wining design the rewards could be enormous. A potential market for 5,000-8,000 aircraft has been forecast.

The origins of JSF lie in the realisation by the US Marine Corps and Royal Navy during the 1980s that a replacement for the Sea Harrier and AV-8B would be required after the year 2000. Various research studies were undertaken on both sides of the Atlantic into advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) concepts. The best of these concepts appeared to involve the use of a dedicated lift-fan located behind the cockpit. In 1989, DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) took over leadership of the advanced STOVL project and focused the on-going effort into a phased development programme leading to a flying demonstrator aircraft using the powerful new engines developed for the YF-22 and YF-23 Advanced Tactical Fighter.

As the studies progressed, it was realised that a STOVL aircraft with the lift-fan removed and replaced by a large fuel tank would result in a fighter with excellent long range capability. Such a fighter would fulfil the needs of the USAF, which was looking for a longer-ranged fighter capability in the light of Gulf War operations. Thus was born the Common Affordable Lightweight Fighter (CALF) project – aimed at producing a single aircraft design with both STOVL and Conventional Take-Off and Landing (CTOL) variants.

In March 1993, study contracts were issued to Lockheed and McDonnell Douglas under the CALF project. In addition, Boeing and Northrop Grumman initiated self-funded design studies. In 1995, CALF was absorbed into the Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) programme, which was originally intended to focus on technology studies and demonstration of various equipment for next generation strike aircraft. In fact, JAST soon evolved into a firm requirement for an advanced single-seat, single-engined lightweight multi-role fighter which could be operated by the USAF, US Navy and US Marines in closely similar variants. The opportunity to replace the F-16, A-10, F/A-18C/D and AV-8B with one design would result in huge savings in costs due to the large production run. During 1996 JAST was renamed JSF (Joint Strike Fighter).

In November 1996, Boeing and Lockheed Martin were awarded contracts to build two Concept Demonstrator Aircraft (CDA) – one CTOL version and one STOVL version – each. The aircraft were not intended to be fighter prototypes, but rather to prove that the selected design concepts would work, hence the use of X-series designations. The Boeing design received the designation X-32 and the Lockheed Martin design the designation X-35.

The design of the Lockheed Martin X-35 is clearly derived from that of the F-22 Raptor. The aerodynamic configuration is very similar, as is the application of stealth technology in the shaping of the fuselage. The STOVL version features a Rolls-Royce (Allison) designed lift-fan located behind the cockpit. The fan is mechanically driven by a shaft running from the engine and is designed to support almost half of the aircraft’s weight when in the hover. At the rear of the fuselage is a pitch-axis vectoring nozzle for the engine exhaust, which provides the remaining thrust to balance the aircraft.

For the two CDA aircraft, the designation X-35A was allocated to the CTOL version and X-35B to the STOVL version. Unlike Boeing, Lockheed Martin introduced a third version, the X-35C, to undertake simulated aircraft carrier (CV/CTOL) testing. This aircraft was produced by converting the X-35A after it had completed it’s planned flight trials. The X-35A and X-35B have very similar airframes, including the aft cockpit bulge and associated doors for the lift-fan, which is only fitted to the X-35B. In addition to the clamshell doors above and below the lift-fan bay are another set of doors in the aircraft spine serving an engine auxiliary intake for use at low forward speeds. When transitioning to and from the hover, all three sets of doors open or close as required. The X-35C was converted at Palmdale from the X-35A. It featured increased wing area and significantly larger tail surfaces to demonstrate carrier approach performance.

The production version of the X-35, known as the Preferred Weapons System Concept (PWSC), will feature a number of design changes. All versions will have the main air intakes reshaped and located further aft on the fuselage. The USAF’s CTOL version is considered the baseline model. The STOVL version is 81% common in terms of airframe structure, while the CV version is only 62% common. The CTOL and STOVL versions have the same wing design, which has increased area compared to the X-35A/B. The CV version has much larger wings and tail surfaces and strengthened landing gear, including a twin wheel noseleg. The CTOL and CV versions will not feature the slightly bulged area behind the cockpit, which houses the lift-fan on the STOVL version, allowing a larger canopy glazed area. Extra fuel will be accommodated in place of the lift fan. The CTOL and CV versions will also feature slightly bulged weapons bay doors to accommodate larger weapons.

The Lockheed Martin X-35 was selected as the winning JSF design on 26 October 2001.

X-35A CTOL demonstrator Front view of X-35A X-35A taxiing
(All photos Lockheed Martin)

Variants

Requirement Specification: JORD – Joint Operational Requirements Document
Manufacturers Designation: Model 220

Development History:
X-35A CTOL concept demonstrator for the USAF. Configuration 220A.
X-35B STOVL concept demonstrator for the USMC and Royal Navy. Configuration 220B.
X-35C CV/CTOL concept demonstrator for the US Navy. Converted from X-35A. Configuration 220C.
Model 235 Lockheed Martin designation for PWSC production version.
CTOL PWSC Baseline production version, for USAF.
STOVL PWSC USMC production version with lift fan in bulged area aft of cockpit, shorter cockpit canopy and no bulging of weapons bay doors.
CV PWSC US Navy production version, featuring much larger wing and tail surfaces and strengthened landing gear with twin wheel noseleg.

History

Key Dates:
1990    Common Affordable Lighweight Fighter (CALF) study launched by Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA).
August 1994    United Kingdom joins study programme.
1995    CALF incorporated into JAST (Joint Advanced Strike Technology) concept studies.
March 1996    Request for proposals issued to Boeing, Lockheed Martin and McDonnell Douglas led teams.
mid 1996    JAST programme renamed JSF (Joint Strike Fighter).
16 November 1996    McDonnell Douglas eliminated from competition. Lockheed Martin and Boeing awarded contracts to produce and flight test 2 technology demonstrators each.
1997    Northrop Grumman and British Aerospace join Lockheed Martin team.
24 October 2000    Maiden flight of X-35A CTOL demonstrator.
21 November 2000    First supersonic flight of X-35A.
16 December 2000    Maiden flight of X-35C CV/CTOL demonstrator.
February 2001    Final production PWSC design submitted.
24 June 2001    First hover of X-35A converted to X-35B STOVL demonstrator configuration.
20 July 2001    X-35B demonstrates short take-off, level supersonic dash and vertical landing in one flight.
26 October 2001    Lockheed Martin X-35 wins the JSF competition. Engineering Manufacturing Development (EMD) contract to be awarded in November.
2005    Projected maiden flight of first EMD aircraft.
2008    Projected in-service date for CTOL aircraft.
2008    Projected in-service date for STOVL aircraft.
X-35B on the hover pit X-35B with intake doors open X-35B cruising at altitude
(All photos Lockheed Martin)

Operators

Military Operators

U.S. Air Force (1,763 planned)
U.S. Navy (480 planned)
U.S. Marine Corps (609 planned)
UK – Royal Navy (60 planned)

Government Agencies

None

Civilian Operators

None

Specifications

Lockheed Martin X-35
Crew: Pilot.
Dimensions: Length 50 ft 11 in (15.52 m); Height ? ft ? in (? m); Wing Span 40 ft 0 in (12.19 m) for X-35C, 33 ft 0 in (10.05 m) for X-35A/B; Wing Area 600 sq ft (55.7 sq m) for X-35C, 412.3 sq ft (38.3 sq m) for X-35A/B
Engines: One Pratt & Whitney F119-PW turbofan derivative, designated SE611, of 42,000 lb. (186.9 kN) st. with afterburning plus Rolls-Royce lift fan (X-35B only) of 18,000 lb (80 kN) thrust. (F119-PW-611C for CV/CTOL and F119-PW-611S for STOVL variant).
Weights: Empty Operating 25,000 lb (11,340 kg); Maximum Take-off 50,000 lb (22,680 kg)
Armament: Six AIM-120C AMRAAM or two AIM-120C AMRAAM and two 2,000 lb. JDAM in internal fusleage bay; provision for one 20mm M61A2 rotary cannon with 400 rounds in starboard wing root (USAF CTOL variant). Provision for 4 underwing pylons with 5,000 lb (2,268 kg) capacity each.
Performance: Maximum level speed Mach 1.4+ at altitude; Maximum rate of climb at sea level classified; Service ceiling 50,000+ ft (15,240+ m); Radius of action 540 nm (622 miles, 1000 km) for USMC attack mission, 600 nm (691 miles, 1112 km) for US Navy attack mission
Top view of X-35C X-35C rear view X-35C cruising
(All photos Lockheed Martin)

Production

Design Centre

Head of Design Team: Not known
Design Office: Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co, ‘Skunk Works’, Palmdale, CA.

Manufacture

Lockheed Martin
(Lockheed Martin TAS, PO Box 748, Fort Worth, TX 761201, USA.)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
X-35A/C 1 Palmdale, CA 1998-2000
X-35B 1 Palmdale, CA 1998-2001
F/A-xx (2900) Fort Worth, TX (planned 2004-2020+)
Total: 2    

Total Produced: 2900 a/c (planned)

Note: Manufacturing workshare is split between Lockheed Martin at Fort Worth and Northrop Grumman and BAE SYSTEMS. Final assembly will be at Fort Worth.

Production List

To be added.

More Information

Books

‘International Air Power Review, Volume 1’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
Published by AIRtime Publishing Inc, May 2001 ISBN: 1 880588 33 1
* Includes ‘Focus Aircraft’ feature on the two JSF contenders.

Magazines

‘Combat Aircraft, Vol. 3 No.4’
Published by AIRtime Publishing Inc, March 2001 ISBN: n/a
* Includes feature article on JSF flight testing.

Links:

Lockheed Martin Corporation

Shop

Flight Simulator Models:
To be added.

Scale Models:
To be added.

Scale Drawings:
To be added.

Videos:

To be added.

Lockheed Martin P-3 Orion

Aircraft Profile
US Navy P-3B 153433 of VP-4
(photo, US Navy)

Development

The basic airframe is adapted from the L-188 Electra commercial airliner and since its introduction in 1969, the P-3 Orion has undergone a series of configuration changes to implement improvements in a variety of mission and aircraft updates. These changes have been called “Updates”. Update I was in 1975 and incorporated new data processing avionics software. Update II in 1977 included an infrared detection system, a sonobuoy reference system, the Harpoon anti-ship missile and 28-channel magnetic tape recorder/reproducer.

The TECHEVAL (Technical Evaluation) for Update III began in March 1981. Update III was enhanced by a Channel Expansion (CHEX) program; CHEX doubled the number of sonobuoy channels that can be processed. Testing and evaluation was completed in June 1988.

The ASW variants have a comprehensive suite of communications, navigation, acoustic and non-acoustic sensors, and data-processing equipment. The Orion’s capability has been greatly increased during its operational life, IFF interrogator, LTN-72 INS, Doppler navigation radar, 360° search radar, MAD, AN/AQA-7 Direction Low-Frequency Analyzer and Ranging (DIFAR) system and chin mounted FLIR.

The Orion also has an internal weapons bay and ten external weapons stations for carrying a mix of ASW torpedoes, depth charges and AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles. There are three hard points outboard of the engines on each wing and four on the wing centre section. Each wing pylon can carry up to 500lb (227kg) while the middle pylons can carry 1,000lb (454kg) of stores. The internal weapons bay can accommodate a variety of depth charges and mines or up to eight lightweight ASW torpedoes. Sonobuoys can be launched from external pods or from a set of tubes located internally aft of the weapons bay. AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air and AGM-65F Maverick anti-ship missiles have been test launched from the P-3. The last Navy P-3C came off the production line at the Lockheed plant in April 1990.

Head-on view of a P-3C. (photo, US Navy) P-3C 158913 from VP-40 cleans up after
take-off. (photo, US Navy)

Variants

Requirement Specification: Type Spec No.146
Manufacturers Designation: L-???

Development History:
Electra test bed YP3V-1 (later YP-3A) aerodynamic prototype, first flown 25 November 1959.
PV3-1/P-3A Initial production version with 4,500 shp T56-A-10W engines. First flight 30 March 1961; P3V-1 redesignated P-3A in 1962. No longer in USN service.
P-3B Production version with 4,910 shp T56-A-14 Engines; 144 built, 21 for export. First flight on 24 September 1965. Most remain in US Naval Reserve service.
P-3C Definitive production version for USN. First flight 18 September 1968.
P-3C Update I Improved avionics version of the P-3C. First aircraft delivered in January 1975. 31 built.
P-3C Update II Further improvements over Update I including a Sonobuoy Reference System (SRS). First aircraft delivered in August 1977. 44 built.
P-3C Update II.5 24 aircraft fitted with new navigational and comms. equipment.
P-3C Update III 50 new build aircraft delivered from 1984 to 1990.
P-3C Update IV Boeing programme for existing P-3s and Long Range Air ASW Capable Aircraft (LRAACA); canceled in the early 1990s. Technology revived in 1995 – 1996 proposal for use in retrofitted Nimrod MR aircraft for British Replacement Patrol Aircraft (RPMA).
Orion 2000 Newly built P-3 design from Lockheed Martin for British RMPA competition in 1995 1996.
Valkyrie RMPA offering refurbished P-3s.
ASUTTA Acoustic System Upgrade to ASW Aircraft (ASUTTA).
IPADS ASUTTA programme to be applied to US Naval Reserve P-3B.
P-3D Proposed variant with Allison 501-M80C engines developed for Iran prior to the revolution, but not produced. Designation later assigned to P-3s being built for South Korea for delivery in 1995.
P-3F Similar to the P-3C, but equipped for service with the Iranian Navy. 6 were delivered before the 1979 revolution.
P-3G Proposed upgrade with Allison 501-M80C engines and update IV avionics. Superseded by Lockheed candidate for LRAACA.
P-7 LRAACA Update IV avionics suite fitted to enlarged P-3 aircraft.
P-3H Proposed upgrade of P-3C with weapons bay enlarged for AGM-84 Harpoon missiles.
EP-3 Aires/EP-3 Batrack US Navy ELINT conversion of P-3A/B aircraft for USN, specialising in tactical signal intelligence. 10 EP-3Es were converted from P-3A aircraft and are the oldest airframes in the fleet.
EP-3E Aires II Conversion in Lieu of Production (CILOP) of 10 EP-3E Aires 1 and 2 EP-3B Batracks. EP-3C ELINT variant of kawasaki-built P-3C for JMSDF. Last of 8 delivered by mid-1990s.
NP-3 Japanese P-3s configured for flight checking of navigational aids.
RP-3A P-3 configured for Project Magnet, which mapped the Earth’s magnetic field.
TP-3A P-3 aircrew training aircraft.
VP-3A US Navy VIP Transport variant.
UP-3A Similar to VP-3A, but used in utility role.
WP-3D US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather research aircraft.
Outlaw Hunter P-3C modified to support Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile (TASM). Aircraft can detect ships, establish their precise location, and maintain and predict track histories.
Australian P-3W 10 P-3B Update II aircraft delivered in 1978-1979 and 10 Update II.5 aircraft delivered in 1982-86.
1995 Australian P-3 Upgrade 18 aircraft upgraded under 1995 contract.
New Zealand P-3K/Rigel I/II/III 6 New Zealand P-3s updated under the 1981 Rigel I/II/II programmes.
Norway P-3N 2 P-3Bs upgraded to “P-3N” standard for coastal surveillance by the Norwegian Coast Guard.
Spanish P-3 modernisation 2 P-3As purchased in 1964 and 5 ex Norwegian AF aircraft bought in 1987 updated, with radar and sonar modification, addition of on-board signal processing and Infrared (IR) detection system.
Trap Shot Private study by Lockheed and General Dynamics to fit a P-3C with Advanced Air-to-Air Missiles (AAAM) in the early 1980s.
CP-140 Aurora Canadian maritime patrol aircraft using P-3 airframe and S-3A Viking avionics.
CP-140A Arcturus Stripped-down version of the CP-140 with ASW equipment deleted. Used for crew training and fishery patrols.
NP-3D 150522/340 from NWTSPM at Point
Mugu. (photo, US Navy)
WP-3D N42RF equipped for atmospheric
research. (photo, NOAA)

History

Key Dates:
1957    Lockheed proposes Electra to meet Navy requirement for land-based ASW aircraft.
May 1958    Research & Development contract awarded.
19 August 1958    First flight of YP3V-1, the third production Electra (188-1003)
25 November 1959    YP3V-1 (BuNo 148276) with 7 ft shorter fuselage and most of the planned avionics, makes first flight.
October 1960    First production contract awarded.
15 April 1961    First flight of the P3V-1.
15 April 1962    Trials began at NATC Patuxent River.
1962-63    P-3s participate in quarantine of Cuba.
1966    New Zealand becomes the first international customer.
November 1966    VP-9 and VP-26 take delivery of the first ‘B’ models.
18 September 1968    First flight of P-3C.
June 1969    First ‘C’ model delivered to VP-30
June 1969    First EP-3B in service with VQ-1
September 1969    First operational aircraft delivered to VP-56
1970    VP-49 Makes first overseas deployment of P-3C.
1975    Iran places order for 6 P-3F aircraft.
1975    VX-1 takes delivery of the first P-3C.
July 1976    Canada orders the CP-140.
September 1977    First ‘Update IIs’ delivered to VX-1
1978    Kawasaki Heavy Industries obtains license to build P-3 for Japan’s maritime patrol needs. (90 airframes)
1981    Update II
May 1984    Update III begins service.
14 June 1984    Prototype AEW first flight.
1988    First P-3 AEW aircraft delivered to U.S. Customs Service.
17 April 1990    Last USN P-3C Update III delivered.
1990    Lockheed Corporation moves the P-3 assembly line to its Marietta, Georgia facility.
15 December 1990    Korea orders 8 P-3Cs to be built in Marietta.
3 November 1992    The first Marietta built Orion rolls out of final assembly.
12 December 1994    First flight of Marietta built P-3C.
3 October 1995    The first P-3C delivered to ROK Navy.
Underside view of a P-3C. (photo, US Navy) An AP-3C from 10 Sqn RAAF. (photo, RAAF)

Operators

Military Operators

U.S. Navy (Approximately 30 Sqns/units)
Royal New Zealand Air Force (1 Sqn.)
Royal Australian Air Force (4 Sqns.)
Kongelige Norske Luftvorsvaret (Royal Norwegian Air Force) (1 Sqn.)
Ejercio del Aire (Spanish Air Force) (1 Sqn.)
Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (1 Wing)
Canadian Armed Forces (5 Sqns.)
Nihon Kaijyo Jieitai (Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force) (12 Kokutai)
Marineluchtvaartdienst (Royal Netherlands Navy) (2 Sqns.)
Forca Aerea Portuguesa (1 Sqn.)
Comandancia de la Aviacion Naval de Chile (1 Sqn.)
Royal Thai Navy (1 Sqn.)
Republic of Korea Navy (1 Sqn.)
Polimiko Naytiko/Polimiko Aeroporia (Greek Navy/Air Force) (1 Sqn.)
Pakistan Navy (1 Sqn.)
Comando de Aviacion Naval Argentina (1 Sqn.)

Government Agencies

US Customs Service P-3A, P-3AEW
US Forestry Service (leased) P-3A
NASA P-3B
NOAA WP-3D

Civilian Operators

Hawkins and Power P-3A fire bomber
Black Hills Aviation P-3A fire bomber
Aero Union P-3A fire bomber
P-3C 163289 from VP-62 seen at Boscombe
Down in 1992. (photo, Anthony Noble)
P-3C 161011 from VP-26 seen at Greenham Common in 1981. (photo, Anthony Noble)

Specifications

Lockheed Martin P-3C Orion
Crew: Ten or eleven
Dimensions: Length 116 ft 10 in (35.61 m); Height 33 ft 8½ in (10.29 m); Wing Span 99 ft 8 in (30.37 m); Wing Area 1,300 sq ft (120.77 sq m)
Engines: Four Allison T56-A-14 turboprops rated at 4,910 ehp (3661 ekW) each
Weights: Empty Equipped 61,491 lb (27,890 kg); Normal Take-off 135,000 lb (61,235 kg); Maximum Take-off 142,000 lb (64,410 kg)
Armament: Ten underwing hardpoints and an internal weapons bay forward of the wing for a Maximum Weapon Load 19,252 lb (8,733 kg) – comprising Mk 46 or Mk 50 torpedoes, depth bombs, B57 nuclear depth charges, AGM-84 Harpoon missiles or underwing rocket pods.
Performance: Maximum level speed 411 kts (473 mph, 761 kph) at 105,000 lb (47,625 kg) at 15,000 ft (4575 m), 380 kts (438 mph, 704 kph) at Max T/O weight at same height; Economical cruising speed 328 kts (378 mph, 608 kph); Patrol speed at 1,500 ft (457 m) 206 kt (237 mph, 381 kph); Maximum rate of climb at sea level 1,950 ft/min (594 m/min); Service ceiling 28,300 ft (8,625 m); Operational radius 1346 nm (1550 miles, 2494 km) with 3 hours on station; Ferry range 4,830 nm (5,562 mls, 8,950 km)
P-3C 159327 from VP-8 at NAS Brunswick.
(photo, US Navy)
P-3B N920AU fire-bomber conversion.
(photo, Sandia Corp.)

Production

Design Centre

Head of Design Team: Not known
Design Office: Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, Burbank, CA (originally)

Manufacture

Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems Company (LMASC)
(LMASC, 86 South Cobb Drive, Marietta, GA 30063, USA. Formerly Lockheed Aircraft)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
YP3V-1 1 conv. Palmdale, CA May 1958-Nov 1959
P-3A 157 Palmdale, CA Oct 1960-mid 1965
P-3B 144 Palmdale, CA mid 1965-1969
P-3C 118 Palmdale, CA 1969-1975
P-3C Update I 31 Palmdale, CA 1975-1977
P-3C Update II 37 Palmdale, CA 1977-19??
P-3C Update II.5 24 Palmdale, CA 19??-1984
P-3C Update III 101 Palmdale, CA 1984-1990
P-3F 6 Palmdale, CA 1975-19??
CP-140 18 Palmdale, CA 1978-July 1981
CP-140A 3 Palmdale, CA 1989-Sept 1991
P-3C 8 Marietta, GA 1991-199?
Total: 647    
Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd
(1-18 Nakamachi-Dori, 2-chome, Chuo-Ku Kobe, Japan)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
P-3C 101* Kobe 1981-1997
EP-3C 3 Kobe 1997-2000
UP-3C 1 Kobe ?-1996
UP-3D 2 Kobe ?-1999
NP-3C 1 Kobe cancelled
Total: 107    

* First 4 a/c assembled from Palmdale components.

Total Produced: 754 a/c

Production List

‘P-3 Orion Volume 2’ Scramble Special Edition
by Marco P.J. Borst & Jaap Dubbeldam – P-3 Orion Research Group
Published by Dutch Aviation Society, 2000 ISBN: 90 806230 2 4
* Spotters history of the P-3. Includes all variants, units and complete production list.

P-3C N9lLC AEW&C prototype for US
Customs. (photo, Lockheed Martin)
P-3C 3296 of the Royal Norwegian Air Force.
(photo, Lockheed Martin)

More Information

Books

‘The Age of Orion: The Lockheed P-3 Story’ [Order this book from USA]
by David Reade
Published by Schiffer Publishing, Apr 1998 ISBN: 076430478X
* Comprehensive detailed history.

‘Lockheed P-3 Variants – Datagraph Seven’
by Jay Miller
Published by Aerofax, 1998 ISBN: 0942548167
* Good development history.

‘P-3 Orion: The Hunter In The Sky’
by Lindsay Peacock
Published by RAF Benevolent Fund Enterprises, 22 July 19968 ISBN: 1899808353
* Well illustrated history with lots of colour photos.

‘P-3 Orion in Action – Aircraft Number 193’ Squadron.com
by Richard S. Dann and Rick Burgess
Published by Squadron/Signal Publications, Aug 2004 ISBN: 0 89747 478 3
* Very well illustrated pictorial history.

‘ADAK – The Rescue of Alfa Foxtrot 586’
by Andrew C.A. Jampoler
Published by Naval Institute Press, April 2003 ISBN: 1 59114 412 4
* Exciting true story of the ditching of a P-3 in the Bering Sea and the rescue of its crew.

‘World Air Power Journal, Volume 3’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
Published by Aerospace Publishing Ltd, Nov 1990 ISBN: 1 87402 3042
* Includes ‘Variant Briefing’ feature on the P-3 Orion.

‘World Air Power Journal, Volume 43’
Published by Aerospace Publishing Ltd, Oct 2000 ISBN: 1 86184 055 1
* Includes very detailed 57-page feature on the P-3 Orion in US service.

‘International Air Power Review, Volume 1’
Published by AIRtime Publishing Ltd, 2001 ISBN: x
* Includes 14-page feature on the P-3 Orion in Foreign service.

‘International Air Power Review, Volume 2’
Published by AIRtime Publishing Ltd, 2001 ISBN: 1 880588 34 X
* Includes 4-page feature on the EP-3E Aries II.

Magazines

To be added.

Links

P-3 Orion Research Group
(Worldwide P-3 news & info, RNeth Navy P-3 details, links)

The Hangar – Propwash
(Lots of US Navy P-3 Orion info & links)

The Lockheed P3 Orion
(Feature article + variants, photos, AIP update, CAF use)

US Navy Factfile: P-3C Orion
(Description and specification)

Aerospaceweb.org: P-3 Orion
(Description, specs, variants, 3-view, sources)

Airliners.net
(15 excellent ‘P3’ photos)

Airliners.net
(16 pages of excellent P-3 photos)

The Lockheed P-3 Orion Operating in Iceland
(A page of high-quality P-3 Photos)

P-3 Orion
(Lockheed Martin official P-3 information)

P-3 Orion
(Detailed description, P-3C spec, photos, sources)

Lockheed P-3P Orion
(Portuguese AF P-3 use and photos)

JetPhotos.net
(6 pages of P-3 photos)

US Customs Service P-3 Orion
(6 photos of USCS AEW P-3 aircraft)

Lockheed P-3K Orion
(RNZAF P-3K use and photos)

P-3 Orion Fan Page
(Photo gallery, artwork gallery, links, news – includes links to several EP-3E photos)

US Customs Service P-3 AEW
(1 page of photos of the USCS AEW P-3)

EP-3E Aries / P3-C Orion
(Summary of P-3C/EP-3E data with EP-3E photo)

P-3 Orion
(Summary of the technology included in the P-3)

P-3 Orion
(Good profile covering history, upgrades, specs, photos, variants etc)

Lockheed P-3 Orion
(Variants, production details – inc serials, conversions)

Lockheed P-3A ‘Orion’
(P-3 in Chilean Air Force service)

RADS II for the P-3 Orion / L-188
(Firebomber system for P-3 from Aero Union)

Lockheed P-3 Orion
(P-3 Flight Manual on CD-ROM)

Lockheed WP-3D Orion
(Details of NOAA operated P-3 variant)

VP Navy
(Website dedicated to US Navy ASW Patrol Squadrons and Aircraft – lots of P-3 information)

Lockheed Martin Orion 21
(Details of Lockheed Martin’s entrant to the MMA contest)

Lockheed CP-140 Aurora
(One page of info on Canadian use of CP-140)

Centerseat
(Webpage for P-3 Flight Engineers – news, mishaps, humour, photos etc)

P-3C Orion
(Vought Aircraft Industries contribution to P-3 production)

Lockheed Martin P-3B/C ‘Iron Clad’ Variants
(Detailed article on P-3 ELINT variants)

Shop

Flight Simulator Models:
To be added.

Scale Models:
To be added.

Scale Drawings:
Aviation News Volume 05 Issue 01

Videos:

To be added.

Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22 Raptor

Aircraft Profile
Head-on view of a F-22A Raptor
over Edwards AFB. (photo, USAF)

Development

The F-22 Raptor will become the replacement for the F-15 Eagle air-superiority fighter. It combines a stealth design with highly maneuverable, supersonic (supercruise) speed, with air-to-air and air-to-ground capabilities. Before its selection as winner of the Advanced Tactical Fighter competition, there was a four and a half year demonstration/validation programme. This involved two YF-22 prototypes and two prototype engine, the Pratt & Whitney YF119 and the General Electric YF120. The demonstration/validation programme ended in December 1990. The first F-22 Raptor next-generation air dominance fighter, 4001, was unveiled at a rollout ceremony at Marietta, Georgia, on 9th April 1997. It made its first flight on 7th September 1997. The second Raptor, 4002, flew for the first time on 29th June 1998.

The ‘team’ contracted to develop the F-22 Raptor is Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company and Boeing Defense and Space Group’s Military Airplane Division. The ‘team’ was formed in 1986, when Lockheed, Boeing and General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co.) joined forces for the Advanced Tactical Fighter competition. The USAF plans to procure 438 production F-22s each powered by a pair of Pratt & Whitney F119 engines.

This aircraft is being developed to counter the increasing sophistication and threat of hostile air forces and air defense systems in use around the world. The F-22 will be lethal and survivable, with its balance of increased speed and range, enhanced offensive and defensive avionics, and reduced observability. The new high thrust-to-weight ratio engine, the Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100, is designed for efficient supersonic speeds without afterburner (called supercruise). The engines (of approximately 35,000 lb. thrust), will have two-dimensional thrust vectoring, which will give the Raptor superior maneuverability.

The F-22 is capable of carrying existing and planned weapons in internal bays. These will include six radar-guided AIM-120C AMRAMs, and two heat seeking, short range AIM-9M Sidewinders. The F-22 will also have an internal M61A2 20mm cannon, an advanced version of the M61 Gatling gun. Additionally it will have a ground attack capability, and it can carry two 1,000 lb. GBU-32 Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) internally.

According to LMASC, on 12th January 1999, a new MiG fighter conceived as a Russian response to the Raptor was unveiled. The multifunction Fighter, known to the west as “Project 1.42”, is proclaimed by the MAPO-MiG company to be able to outperform the F-22.

First YF-22 prototype, N22YF.
(photo, Edwards AFB)
First EMD prototype, F-22A ‘Raptor 01’ 91-4001. (photo, Edwards AFB)

Variants

Requirement Specification: ?
Manufacturers Designation: ?

Development History:
YF-22 Two development aircaft – first aircraft with General Electric YF120 engines, second aircraft with Pratt & Whitney YF119 Engines.
F-22 EMD Airframe and avionics development aircraft with revised wing and tailplane planforms, wider nose, engine intakes moved aft and Pratt & Whitney F120 Engines fitted.
F-22A Production variant with full avionics configuration.
F-22B Projected 2-seat operational training version of F-22A with rear fuselage fuel tank deleted. Production cancelled.
NATF Projected naval version of F-22A with swing-wing, to replace F-14 Tomcat. Cancelled in 1993.
Plan view of the YF-22.
(photo, Lockheed Martin)
Head on view of the YF-22.
(photo, Lockheed Martin)

History

Key Dates:
November 1981    USAF identifies a need for an advanced tactical fighter to replace the F-15
November 1985    USAF issues stringent stealth goals for the F-22.
June 1986    USAF awards contract to Pratt & Whitney and General Electric to build prototype engines for the demonstration/validation programme.
October 1986    Lockheed (YF-22) and Northrop (YF-23) are selected to compete in the Advanced Fighter Programme
28th August 1990    The YF-22A is unveiled at the Lockheed plant in Palmdale.
29th September 1990    First flight of the prototype.
25th October 1990    First USAF pilot to fly the YF-22 prototype, Maj. Mark Shackford. Also the first time the aircraft is flown at supersonic speed.
3rd November 1990    The YF-22’s ability to ‘supercruise’ is demonstrated for the first time.
15th November 1990    Thrust Vectoring demonstrated for the first time.
31st December 1990    Lockheed, Boeing and General Dynamics ‘team’ submits its proposal for the F-22 to the USAF.
23rd April 1991    Lockheed ‘team’ wins the ATF contract. Pratt & Whitney announced engine winners.
9th April 1997    F-22 EMD aircraft 4001 is publicly unveiled at Marietta. During this ceremony the F-22 is officially named the ‘Raptor’.
7th September 1997    First flight of F-22 EMD aircraft 4001.
31st March 1998    YF-22 prototype placed on public display at the Dayton Air Force Museum.
Nice view of Raptor 01 cruising.
(photo, Lockheed Martin)
Raptor 01 shows two AIM-120s in it’s port
missile bay. (photo, Edwards AFB)

Operators

Military Operators

U.S. Air Force tba

Government Agencies

None

Civilian Operators

None
Raptor 01 comes in to land at Edwards AFB.
(photo, Lockheed Martin)
Second EMD prototype F-22A 91-4002 fires
an AIM-9 Sidewinder. (photo, Lockheed Martin)

Specifications

Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22A Raptor
Crew: Pilot.
Dimensions: Length 62 ft 1 in (18.92 m); Height 16ft 5 in (5.00 m); Wing Span 44 ft 6 in (13.56 m); Wing Area 840 sq ft (78.04 sq m)
Engines: Two Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 turbofans of 35,000 lb. (155.69 kN) st. each with afterburning
Weights: Empty Operating 32,000 lb (14,515 kg); Maximum Take-off 55,000 lb (24,950 kg)
Armament: Two AIM-9M Sidewinders in fuselage side bays; six AIM-120C AMRAAM or two AIM-120C AMRAAM and two 1,000 lb. JDAM in under fusleage bay; one 20mm M61A2 rotary cannon with 480 rounds in starboard wing root. Provision for 4 underwing pylons with 5,000 lb (2,268 kg) capacity each.
Performance: Maximum level speed 800 kts (921 mph, 1483 kph) at sea level, Mach 1.8+ at altitude, supercruise at Mach 1.4+; Maximum rate of climb at sea level classified; Service ceiling 50,000+ ft (15,240+ m); Ferry range with full fuel tanks 1,735 nm (2,000 mls, 3,220 km)
A view of the F-22A’s distinctive planform.
(photo, Lockheed Martin)
F-22A 91-4002 catches the sunshine.
(photo, Lockheed Martin)

Production

Design Centre

Head of Design Team: Not known
Design Office: Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co. and Boeing Defense and Space Group Military Airplanes Division.

Manufacture

Lockheed Martin
(86 South Cobb Drive, Marietta, GA 30063-0264, USA)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
YF-22 2 Palmdale, CA Jan 1990-Oct 1990
F-22 EMD 9 Marietta, GA June 1995-2001
F-22A 339 Marietta, GA (planned 2004-2013)
Total: 11    

Total Produced: 350 a/c (planned)

Note: Manufacturing workshare is split between Boeing at St Louis, and Lockheed Martin at Fort Worth and Marietta. Final assembly is at Marietta.

Production List

To be added.

The second OTE aircraft F-22A 99-4011.
(photo, Lockheed Martin)
The 8th EMD aircraft, F-22A 91-4008.
(photo, USAF)

More Information

Books

‘F-22 Raptor’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Steve Pace
Published by McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., Sept 1999 ISBN: 0 07134 271 0
* Detailed profile from the Aviation Week series.

‘Enthusiast Color Series: F-22 Raptor’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Bill Sweetman
Published by Motorbooks International, April 1998 ISBN: 0 76030 484 X
* More than just a pictorial history of the F-22, with very good text.

‘Advanced Tactical Fighter to F-22 Raptor:
The Origins of the 21st Century Air Dominance Fighter.
[Order this book from Amazon UK]
by David C. Aronstein et al
Published by AIAA, Oct 1998 ISBN: 1 56347 282 1
* Detailed look at the technical and political development of the F-22 programme.

‘Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor: An Illustrated History’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Mike Wallace, Bill Holden
Published by Schiffer Publishing, 1998 ISBN: 0 76430 558 1
* Very well illustrated profile of the F-22, but not quite so detailed.

‘World Air Power Journal, Volume 38’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
Published by Aerospace Publishing Ltd, Oct 1999 ISBN: 1 8618 4035 7
* Includes 34 page ‘Focus Aircraft’ feature on the F-22 Raptor.

‘International Air Power Review, Volume 5’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
Published by AIRtime Publishing Ltd, 2002 ISBN: 1 880588 44 7
* Includes 30 page ‘Focus Aircraft’ feature on the F-22 Raptor.

Magazines

To be added.

Links

F/A-22 Raptor
* Lockheed Martin official info and photos

F-22 Raptor
* F-22 history to 2000, specs, photos, links

F/A-22 Raptor Team Web Site
* Official F/A-22 info, news, pics, technology explained

F/A-22 Raptor Stealthfighter
* Unofficial enthusiasts site with lots of news, info and pics

The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor
* Good development history

Lockheed Martin F/A-22 Raptor
* Concise history of the F-22 programme

Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor
* Collection of F-22 photos

Air Force Technology – F-22 Raptor
* Description of the technology included in the F-22 design

F22Fighter.com
* Enthusiasts site with news, photos, interviews, tech data, forums etc

F/A-22 Raptor
* Boeing official F/A-22 info and photos

Air Force Link – F/A-22
* F/A-22 features, news, 6 pages of official photos

U.S. Air Force VI
* 4 pages of F/A-22 photos

Airliners.net
* 2 pages of excellent F/A-22 photos

Shop

Flight Simulator Models:
To be added.

Scale Models:
To be added.

Scale Drawings:
Air Pictorial July 1998

‘Wydawnictwo Militaria No.48 Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22 “Raptor”‘
by Jacek Nowicki
Published by Wydawnictwo Militaria, ISBN: 83-86209-88-7
* Polish text profile with detailed 1:72 scale plans
More information

Videos:

To be added.

Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon

Aircraft Profile
F-16D 70-392 from Edwards AFB
(photo, Lockheed Martin)

Development

In January 1972 the Lightweight Fighter Programme asked for designs from several American manufacturers. They were told to tailor their specifications toward developing a lightweight superiority fighter. General Dynamics and Northrop were asked to build prototypes. These were to be strictly technology demonstrators. Northrop produced the twin-engine YF-17 and General Dynamics came up with the compact YF-16 with one engine. The Lightweight Fighter competition was completed in 1975. On 13th January 1975 the USAF announced that the YF-16’s performance had made it the winner of its Air Combat Fighter (ACF) competition.

General Dynamics was selected a finalist in the USAF’s programme to demonstrate superior dogfighting capabilities in a lightweight, low cost fighter prototype. This eventually led to production of the F-16. Since its small beginning with an initial USAF order for 650 aircraft, the F-16 has become one of the largest and most successful military aircraft in aviation history.

The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a compact, multi-role fighter aircraft. In the air combat role, the F-16’s maneouverability and combat radius exceed that of all potential enemy fighter aircraft. It can locate targets in all weather conditions and detect low flying aircraft in radar ground clutter. In the air-to-surface role, the F-16 can fly over 500 miles, deliver its weapons accurately, defend itself, and return to base. An all-weather capability allows it to accurately deliver ordnance during bad weather or at night. With a full load of internal fuel the F-16 can withstand up to 9G’s. The bubble cockpit canopy gives the pilot unobstructed vision forward and upward and much improved vision over the side and rear.

The F-16 first flew in December 1976. The first operational F-16A was delivered to the 388th TFW at Hill AFB, Utah in January 1979. The two-seat version, the F-16B, has two cockpits each about the same size as the single ‘A’ version cockpit. To make room for the second cockpit the forward fuselage fuel tank and avionics growth space is reduced.

The F-16C and F-16D are improved versions of the ‘A’ and ‘B’ and have the latest cockpit control and display technology. A consortium between the US and four NATO countries built the F-16: Belgium, Denmark, Norway and the Netherlands. These countries jointly constructed an initial 348 F-16’s for their air forces. Current USAF plans are for the Block 40/42 and 50/52 F-16’s to equip the USAF’s active units and Block 25/30/32 aircraft to equip Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units.

Variants

Requirement Specification: ?
Manufacturers Designation: ?

Development History:
YF-16 First prototype, designed for the LWF competition.
F-16A FSD Single-seat fighters from Full Scale Development batch for service testing.
F-16B FSD Two-seat conversion trainers from Full Scale Development batch. Airframe dimensions are same as for F-16A but loses 1,500 lb (680 kg) of fuel for rear cockpit. Retains full combat capability.
F-16A/B Block 1 Initial production version. Distinguished by their black radomes. Most Block 1 aircraft were upgraded to Block 10 standard in a programme called “Pacer Loft” in 1982.
F-16A/B Block 5 Refined production version. Most Block 5 aircraft were upgraded to Block 10 standard in a programme called “Pacer Loft” in 1982.
F-16A/B Block 10 Production version with slightly revised avionics equipment fit.
F-16A/B Block 15 The most numerous version of the F-16. Introduced the enlarged tailplane required when carrying large bomb-loads, and adopted on all subsequent variants. This block also featured the introduction of two hardpoints added to the chin of the engine intake. Improvements referred to as MSIP I
F-16A(R) Designation applied to some Dutch AF F-16A aircraft equipped with a centreline tactical reconnaissance pod.
ADF F-16A/B Block 15 Conversion of Block 15 aircraft to dedicated Air Defense Fighter role for use by the ANG. Modified radar to guide AIM-7 Sparrow or AIM-120 AMRAAM BVR missiles, advanced IFF and night identification light in port forward fuselage.
F-16A/B Block 10/Block 15 OCU Operational Capabilities Upgrade programme. Improved avionics and fire-control system and provision for F100-PW-220E engine.
F-16/B MLU Mid-Life Update programme for the original NATO F-16s. Brings cockpit up to Block 50 standard, plus APG-66(V2A) radar and provision for intake mounted FLIR and a helmet-mounted sight.
F-16A/B Block 20 Export version for Taiwan. F-16A/B airframe with MLU avionics fit, giving near Block 50 capability.
F-16C and F-16D Improved series featuring built-in structural and wiring provisions and systems that permit expansion of the multi-role flexibility to perform precision strike, night attack and beyond visual range interception missions. Distinguished by an enlarged fairing at the base of the fin, surmounted by a small blade aerial towards the front.
F-16C/D Block 25 Introduced the ability to carry AIM-120 AMRAAM as well as night and precision ground-attack capabilities, and an improved radar: the AN/APG-68, with increased range, better resolution, and more operating modes.
F-16C/D Block 30/32 New engines – Block 30 the General Electric F110-GE-100. Block 32 the Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220. F110 engined aircraft feature a 1 ft (0.3 m) wider air intake to accomodate the increased air flow ingested. Both blocks can carry the AGM-45 Shrike and the AGM-88A HARM and they can also carry AGM-65 Maverick.
F-16C/D Block 40/42 ‘Night Falcon’ Introduced the LANTIRN navigation and targeting pods and extensive air-to-ground loads, including GBU-10, 12, 24 Paveway laser-guided bombs and the GBU-15. Block 40/42 production began in 1988 and went on until 1995.
F-16C/D Block 50/52 Equipped with the APG-68(V)7 radar and F110-GE-229 (block 50) or F100-PW-220 (block 52) Improved Performance Engine. Technology enhancements include multi-function displays, new modular mission computer, digital terrain system, colour video camera and triple deck recorder. They also carry the CBU-102, 104, 105 Wind-Corrected Stand-Off Weapon, and the GBU-31, 32 Joint Direct Attack Munitions.
F-16CJ/DJ Block 50D/52D “Wild Weasel” Recognised for its ability to carry the AGM-88 HARM and the AN/ASQ-213 HARM Targeting System (HTS) in the suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) mission. This specialised version of the F-16 can also carry the ALQ-119 Electronic Jamming Pod for self-protection.
F-16C/D Block 60 In may 1998 the UAE announced the selection of Block 60 F-16’s to be delivered between 2002 and 2004. The upgrade includes conformal fuel tanks for greater range.
F-16/79 One F-16A converted to take a J79 engine, as used by the F-4 Phantom II. Downgraded export version, later abandoned.
F-16 CCV First YF-16 rebuild to test Control Configured Vehicle technology, with twin canards added.
AFTI/F-16A Fifth FSD F-16A converted with triplex digital flight control system, larger vertical canard control surfaces at the air intake and a thick dorsal spine for Advanced Fighter Technology Integration testing.
NF-16D VISTA Dedicated research aircraft. Later used to develop the AVEN thrust vectoring engine nozzle
F-16XL Special version of F-16 with large cranked delta wing. Intended to improve range, speed and weapons load. Lengthened fuselage mated with completely new ‘cranked-arrow’ delta wing fitted with 17 stores stations. Passed to NASA after losing competition with F-15E.
F-16E/F Proposed designations for single and two-seat production versions of F-16XL.
F-16N Version of the F-16C Block 30 for use by the US Navy as an Aggressor aircraft. Simplified and downgraded systems including fitment of APG-66 radar and removal of the cannon.
TF-16N Two-seat onversion trainer version of F-16N.

History

Key Dates:
January 1972    Lightweight Fighter Project specifications issued.
20 January 1974    Maiden flight of YF-16.
13th January 1975    LWF Competition completed. USAF selects the YF-16.
June 1975    Four NATO countries select the F-16A/B.
December 1976    First flight of F-16A.
January 1979    First F-16As delivered to 388th TFW USAF.
3 July 1982    First flight of F-16XL.
19 June 1984    First flight of F-16C.
October 1986    USAF launches F-16A/B ADF conversion programme.
22 October 1991    First flight of F-16C Block 50.
December 1992    Lockheed Martin purchases General Dynamics Tactical Military Aircraft.
27 December 1992    First air-to-air victory by USAF F-16, over Iraq.
4th December 1996    USAF F-16’s top 5 million flight hours
30th March 1999    3,035th F-16 delivered from Fort Worth factory.
28th July 1999    New Zealand becomes the 20th F-16 customer. (Order later cancelled)
28th April 2000    Lockheed Martin delivers the 4,000th F-16
March 2001    Final USAF aircraft delivered.
The F-16D Production line AFFTC F-16C launching an
AIM-120 AMRAAM
388th FW F-16A dropping ‘iron’ bombs
(All photos Lockheed Martin)

Operators

Military Operators

U.S. Air Force (F-16A/B/C/D)
U.S. Navy (F-16N/TF-16N)
Bahrain – Air Force (2 Sqns with F-16C/D)
Belgium – Air Force (6 Sqns with F-16A/B, later F-16A/B MLU)
Denmark – Air Force (4 Sqns. with F-16A/B, later F-16A/B MLU)
Egypt – Air Force (2 Sqns. with F-16A/B, 6 Sqns. with F-16C/D)
Greece – Air Force (4 Sqns. with F-16C/D)
Indonesia – Air Force (1 Sqn. with F-16A/B)
Iran – Air Force (Order cancelled)
Israel – Air Force (4 Sqns. with F-16A/B, 7 Sqns. with F-16C/D, ? Sqns with F-16I)
Jordan – Air Force (1 Sqn. with F-16A/B)
South Korea – Air Force (8 Sqns. with F-16C/D)
Netherlands – Air Force (9 Sqns. with F-16A/B, later F-16A/B MLU)
Norway – Air Force (4 Sqns. with F-16A/B, later F-16A/B MLU)
New Zealand – Air Force (Order cancelled)
Pakistan – Air Force (3 Sqns. with F-16A/B)
Portugal – Air Force (2 Sqns. with F-16A/B)
Singapore – Air Force (1 Sqn. with F-16A/B)
Taiwan – Air Force (8 Sqns. with F-16A/B)
Thailand – Air Force (1 Sqn. with F-16A/B)
Turkey – Air Force (8 Sqns. with F-16C/D)
UAE – Air Force (4 Sqns. with F-16C/D on order)
Venezuela – Air Force (2 Sqns. with F-16A/B)

Government Agencies

NASA F-16C/D/XL

Civilian Operators

None  

Specifications

Lockheed Martin F-16A Fighting Falcon
Crew: One
Dimensions: Length 49 ft 4 in (15.03 m); Height 16 ft 5.2 in (5.01 m); Wing Span 31 ft 0 in (9.45 m) without wingtip AAMs, 32 ft 9.72 in (10.00 m) with wingtip AAMs; Wing Area 300.00 sq ft (28.87 sq m)
Engines: One Pratt & Whitney F100-P-100 turbofan rated at 14,670 lb st (65.26 kN) dry and 23,830 lb st (106.0 kN) with afterburning
Weights: Empty Equipped 14,567 lb (6,607 kg); Typical Combat Take-off 22,785 lb (10,335 kg); Maximum Take-off 33,000 lb (14,968 kg)
Armament: 20-mm M61A1 Vulcan cannon in port LERX with 511 rounds, wingtip launch rails for AIM-9 Sidewinder or similar missiles, six underwing hardpoints and one under-fuselage centre-line pylon for a maximum of 19,600 lb (8891 kg) of stores at 5.5g loading.
Performance: Maximum level speed ‘clean’ 1,146+ kts (1,320 mph, 2,124 kph) at 40,000 ft (12190 m), 795 kts (915 mph, 1472 kph) at sea level; Maximum rate of climb at sea level 50,000+ ft/min (15240+ m/min); Service ceiling 50,000+ ft (15,240 m); Ferry range 2,100+ nm (2,418 mls, 3,891 km) with drop tanks, Combat radius 295 nm (340 mls 547 km) on hi-lo-hi mission with six 1000 lb (454 kg) bombs
 
Lockheed Martin F-16C Fighting Falcon
Crew: One
Dimensions: Length 49 ft 4 in (15.03 m); Height 16 ft 8½ in (5.09 m); Wing Span 31 ft 0 in (9.45 m) without wingtip AAMs, 32 ft 9.72 in (10.00 m) with wingtip AAMs; Wing Area 300.00 sq ft (28.87 sq m)
Engines: One General Electric F110-GE-100 turbofan rated at 27,600 lb st (122.77 kN) with afterburning, or one Pratt & Whitney F100-P-220 turbofan rated at 23,450 lb st (104.31 kN) with afterburning
Weights: Empty Equipped 19,100 lb (8,663 kg) with F110 turbofan or 18,335 lb (8,316 kg) with F100 turbofan; Typical Combat Take-off 21,585 lb (9,791 kg); Maximum Take-off 25,071 lb (11,372 kg) for an air-air mission without drop tanks or 42,300 lb (19,187 kg) with maximum external load
Armament: 20-mm M61A1 Vulcan cannon in port LERX with 511 rounds, wingtip launch rails for AIM-9 Sidewinder or similar missiles, six underwing hardpoints and one under-fuselage centre-line pylon for a maximum of 19,600 lb (8891 kg) of stores at 5.5g loading.
Performance: Maximum level speed ‘clean’ 1,146+ kts (1,320 mph, 2,124 kph) at 40,000 ft (12190 m), 795 kts (915 mph, 1472 kph) at sea level; Maximum rate of climb at sea level 50,000+ ft/min (15240+ m/min); Service ceiling 50,000+ ft (15,240 m); Ferry range 2,100+ nm (2,418 mls, 3,891 km) with drop tanks, Combat radius 295 nm (340 mls 547 km) on hi-lo-hi mission with six 1000 lb (454 kg) bombs
F-16A FA-60 from 31 Sqn Belgian Air
Force, seen in 1991. (photo, Anthony Noble)
F-16A FA-55 of 1 Sqn Belgian Air Force, seen
in 1992. (photo, Anthony Noble)

Production

Design Centre

Head of Design Team: Not known
Design Office: General Dynamics Corporation, Fort Worth, TX (originally)

Manufacture

Production summary: (Blocks 1 – 20 = A/B, Block 25+ = C/D)

Block F-16A/C F-16B/D Total
1 21 22 43
5 99 27 126
10 145 25 170
15 410 47 457
20 ? ? 150
25 289 30 319
30 360 48 408
32 56 5 61
40 234 31 265
42 150 47 197
50 175 28 203
52 42 12 54
60 ? ? 80?
      2533
Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems Company (LMASC)
(Lockheed Martin TAS, PO Box 748, Fort Worth, TX 761201, USA. Formerly General Dynamics Corp.)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
YF-16 2 Fort Worth, TX 1973-1974
F-16A FSD 6 Fort Worth, TX 1975-1977
F-16B FSD 2 Fort Worth, TX 1977-1978
F-16A 675 Fort Worth, TX 1978-1984
F-16B 121 Fort Worth, TX 1978-1984
F-16C 1306+ Fort Worth, TX 1984-2001
F-16D 201+ Fort Worth, TX 1984-2001
F-16N 22 Fort Worth, TX Jan 1985-1988
TF-16N 4 Fort Worth, TX Jan 1985-1988
F-16/79 1? Fort Worth, TX ?
F-16XL (rebuild) 2 Fort Worth, TX 1982-1983
Total: 2967+    
Fokker Aircraft
(Fokker, Schiphol, Netherlands)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
F-16A 273 ? 1978-?
F-16B 50 ? 1978-?
Total: 300    

Aircraft delivered to Netherlands, Norway and Denmark.

SABCA
(SABCA, Belgium)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
F-16A 190 ? 1978-?
F-16B 40 ? 1978-?
Total: 222    

Aircraft delivered to Belgium and Denmark + 1 a/c to Egypt.

TAI-Turkish Aerospace Industries
(TAI, Turkey – Formerly TUSAS)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
F-16C Block 30 35 ? 1990-1992
F-16D Block 30 9 ? 1990-1992
F-16C Block 40 101 ? 1992-1995
F-16D Block 40 15 ? 1992-1995
F-16C Block 50 110 ? 1995-1999
F-16D Block 50 20 ? 1995-1999
Total: 290    
Samsung Aerospace
(Samsung, South Korea – later Korean Aerospace)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
F-16C Block 52 ?* ? 1994-2001
F-16D Block 52 ?* ? 1994-2001
Total: 120    

* = 12 a/c built at Fort Worth + 36 supplied as kits + 72 local.

Total Produced: 3779+ a/c

Production List

To be added.

More Information

Books

‘Supersonic Fighters: The F-16 Fighting Falcon (War Planes)’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Bill Sweetman
Published by Capstone Press, Jan 2001 ISBN: 07368 07926
* F-16 history for junior readers.

‘F-16 Fighting Falcon in Action’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Lou Drendel
Published by Squadron/Signal Publications, 28 October 1982 ISBN: 0 89747 133 4
* Good pictorial history, but pre-Gulf War.

‘Viper F-16’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Lou Drendel
Published by Squadron/Signal Publications, 25 Sept 1992 ISBN: 0 89747 281 0
* Good post-Gulf War pictorial history.

‘F-16 Fighting Falcons’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by David F. Brown and Robert F. Dorr
Published by Osprey, 25 Sept 1992 ISBN: 1 85532 236 6
* Colourful pictorial history.

‘Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Bill Sweetman & Robert F. Dorr
Published by Aerospace Publishing, 1998 ISBN: 1 86184 028 4
* Comprehensive and very detailed history.

‘World Air Power Journal, Volume 5’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
Published by Aerospace Publishing Ltd, Apr 1991 ISBN: 1 87402 3093
* Includes ‘Focus Aircraft’ 62-page feature on the early model F-16s.

‘World Air Power Journal, Volume 21’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
Published by Aerospace Publishing Ltd, summer 1995 ISBN: 1 87402 3603
* Includes Part 1 of ‘Variant Briefing’ feature on the F-16.

‘World Air Power Journal, Volume 22’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
Published by Aerospace Publishing Ltd, fall 1995 ISBN: 1 87402 362X
* Includes Part 2 of ‘Variant Briefing’ feature on the F-16.

‘World Air Power Journal, Volume 23’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
Published by Aerospace Publishing Ltd, winter 1995 ISBN: 1 87402 3646
* Includes Part 1 of ‘Operators’ feature on the F-16.

‘World Air Power Journal, Volume 24’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
Published by Aerospace Publishing Ltd, spring 1996 ISBN: 1 87402 3662
* Includes Part 2 of ‘Operators’ feature on the F-16.

‘World Air Power Journal, Volume 36’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
Published by Aerospace Publishing Ltd, spring 1999 ISBN: 1 86184 027 6
* Includes ‘Focus Aircraft’ 50-page feature on the F-16 Block 40 onwards.

Uncovering the Lockheed Martin F-16A/B/C/D [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Danny Coremans & Nico DeBoeck
Published by DACO Publications, 20 Nov 2002 ISBN: 90-806747-1-0
* Ultra-detailed colour pictorial coverage of the F-16 for scale modellers.

‘General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon – Lock On No.2’
by Francois Verlinden
Published by Verlinden Publications, ? ISBN: 90-70932-03-2
* Good photographic portrait aimed at the scale modeller, but mainly focuses on the F-16A variant.

‘F-16 Fighting Falcon Walkaround’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Lou Drendel
Published by Squadron/Signal Publications, October 1993 ISBN: 0-89747-307-8
* Close-up pictorial study of all versions up to Block 52.

‘The Air Forces Monthly Book of the F-16 Fighting Falcon’ [Order this book from Amazon UK]
by Tim Senior
Published by Key Books Ltd, 22 Aug 2002 ISBN: 0-946219-60-5
* Concise but comprehensive up-to-date profile of the F-16. Well illustrated.

Production List:
‘F-16 Fighting Falcon – 4th Edition’ Scramble Special Edition
by Martin de Boer
Published by Dutch Aviation Society, 2000 ISBN: 90 806230 1 6
* Spotters history of the F-16. Includes all variants, units and complete production list.

Magazines

Links

Airliners.net
(129 pages of good quality F-16 photos)

General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon
(Description, armament, tactics, news, gallery, future developments etc)

General Dynamics/Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon
(Very detailed profile covering all variants and operators – no photos)

The Lockheed Martin F-16
(Good profile of development, variants, service use and derivatives)

JetPhotos.net
(27 pages of Lockheed Martin F-16 photos)

JetPhotos.net
(45 pages of General Dynamics F-16 photos)

F-16 Fighting Falcon
(Air Force Technology: description of the technology included in the latest versions of the F-16)

F-16I Soufa
(Air Force Technology: description of the technological features of the Israeli F-16I variant)

F-16 Image Gallery
(Lockheed Martin official photos)

Lockheed Martin F-16C
(F-16C walkaround photos)

ROCAF Lockheed Martin F-16A/B Fighting Falcon
(Details of F-16 service use in Taiwan)

Gallery of the Lockheed-Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon
(Photos of Royal Netherlands AF F-16s)

F-16 Fighting Falcon
(FAS profile: design features, variants, spec, production, weapons, photos, sources)

F-16.net: The Ultimate F-16 Reference
(Lots of F-16 info: news, versions, operators, database, timeline, forum, photos, books etc)

F16 Falcon.com
(Copy of Joe Baugher’s F-16 profile, photos, patches)

A tribute to the F-16
(A guide to the F-16, with photos by Hans Rolink)

F-16 Fighting Falcon
(Milavia profile: history, specs, photos, links, books)

The F-16 Viper Pilots Association
(e-publications, news, members, photos, links)

F-16 Viper Information Page
(Modelling the F-16: variant descriptions, cockpit details, websites/books/flight sims, scale models data)

F-16 Fighting Falcon
(Comprehensive profile of many aspects of the F-16 plus good photo gallery)

F-16 Fighting Falcon Walkaround
(Close-up photos of F-16A/C/D variants)

AXLs Plane Gallery: F-16 Falcon
(Collection of 142 F-16 photos)

F-16 Fighting Falcon
(Global Security detailed profile of the F-16)

General Dynamics F-16 (Fighting Falcon)
(Listing of F-16s held in US aviation museums)

F-16XL Ship #1
(NASA Dryden photos of the F-16XL)

AFTI/F-16
(NASA Dryden photos of the AFTI/F-16)

Turkish Air Force and F-16
(Details for the F-16s used by the Turkish AF)










Shop

Flight Simulator Models:
To be added.

Scale Models:
To be added.

Scale Drawings:
See the ‘Uncovering the Lockheed Martin F-16’ or ‘Lock On’ titles above.

Videos:

‘F-16 Falcon – Modern Military Aircraft’ [Order this DVD from Amazon UK]
* Good profile of the F-16, it’s weapons and a view from the cockpit.