1912 Institute of Portuguese Military Aviation founded with aircraft brought by public subscription. 1914-1915 Army officers flying training with France, Britain and USA. 1917 Arma da Aeronautica formed as separate branch of the Army. 1927 Army aviation considerably expanded and reorganised – now operates practically autonomously under Ministry of War. Late 1937 reorganised and expanded again. 1 July 1952 Army and Navy air arms amalgamated into independent Portuguese Air Force.