Peru Key Dates

950 B.C. to 450 B.C.    Kingdom of Chavín emerged in the northern highlands.
1150 to 1450    As loose confederation of cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru and southern Ecuador, the Chimú flourished from about 1150 to 1450.
1438 to 1471    Under Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui rule and that of his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui (1471-93), the Incas came to control upwards of a third of South America, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule.
1528 to 1532    Huáscar (from Cusco) and the illegitimate Atahualpa (from Quito) fought a five-year civil war, were Atahualpa (1532-33) emerged victorious.
1531    Francisco Pizarro arrived in northern Peru.
15 November 1532    Pizarro arrived in Cajamarca, the Inca’s summer residence.
15  November 1533    Pizarro captured the imperial city Cusco.
1535    Pizarro founded Lima as the capital of the new viceroyalty.
1538    Diego de Almagro was executed.
1541    Pizzaro was assassinated.
1776    Creation of a new viceroyalty in the Río de la Plata (River Plate) region.
1780 to 1782    Túpac Amaru rebellion.
28 July 1821    General José de San Martín proclaimed Peru independent.
9 December 1824    Peruvian independence was completed by defeating royalist forces at the hacienda of Ayacucho near Huamanga. This battle in the remote southern highlands effectively ended the long era of Spanish colonial rule in South America.
1845 to 1851    General Marshal Ramón Castilla became president.
1866    Peruvian victory over Spain’s attempts to seize control of the guano-rich Chincha Islands in a tragicomic venture to recapture some of its lost empire in South America.
1883    Treaty of Ancón.
1895 to 1914    Aristocratic Republic.
1914 to 1915    Colonel Oscar Raimundo Benavides (1914-15, 1933-36, and 1936-39) seized power.
1932 to 1934    "Leticia Incident".
1941 to 1942    Border conflict with Ecuador that led to a brief war.
1963    Fernando Belaúnde Terry became president.
1968    General Velasco Alvarado overthrew the Belaúnde government.
1969    The Andean Pact was created.
1975    General Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerrutti became president.
1980    Appearance of the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso–SL).
1981    Peru Ecuador border conflict.
1985    Alan García Pérez became president.
1990    Alberto Kenya Fujimori became president.
September 1992    Abimael Guzmán was captured.
2001    Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique became president.
28 July 2006    Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez became president.
August 2007    Coastal Peru was hit by a devastating earthquake.

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