Aero (3)

Aviation-related Magazines Guide

This was the Polish-language edition of the UK originated partwork Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. It was published in 240 weekly parts between 1984 and 1988. It is not clear what took the place of the RAF squadron histories series included in the UK edition. Many colour illustrations – photos, profile drawings, foldout colour artwork etc.

Poland

Country Profile

The Country

Geography

Poland is located central Europe. It is bordered by Russia (Kaliningrad) to the north east, Lithuania and Belarus to the east, Ukraine to the south east, Slovakia to the south, Czech Republic to the south west, Germany to the west and the Baltic sea to the north.
Poland is essentially a land of flat or gently rolling countryside, with 60 % of the land area below 200 m (650 ft). In the far south the Sudeten Mountains forms the border with the Czech Republic and the Carpathian Mountains the border with Slovakia. The River Oder defines the northern border with Germany. The total land area is 304,460 sq km (117,552 sq miles).
The Population of 38.7 million (2000 figure) comprises 98% of Polish origin, 1% German and 1% other ethnic groups. Some 93% of the people are Roman Catholic, 2% Eastern Orthodox and 5% other faiths or non-religious. The capital city is Warsaw.

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National History

Summary Narrative History

Timeline – Key Dates in Polish History

Further National Information

BBC News Profile: Poland
Yahoo Poland page
wikipedia: Poland
wikipedia: History of Poland

Aviation

Text to be added on the development of aviation in Poland.

Markings

Civil Aircraft Registrations

Polish civil aircraft were registered in the series P-PAAA onwards from 1919, then SP-AAA onwards from 1929. Gliders use the SP- prefix with numerical registrations.

An incomplete all-time Polish civil aircraft register listing is here.

Aircraft Operators

Military Air Arms

Current military air arms-
Air Force (Polska Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej)
Naval Aviation (Lotnictwo Marynarki Wojennej)
Army Aviation (Lotnictwo Wojsk Ladowych)

Historical military air arms-
Air Force [1917-1939]
Naval Aviation [1920-1939]
Polish Airmen in Exile [1939-1945]

Central Government Agencies

Civil Defence Aviation (103rd Air Regiment) [1972-2000]
Border Guard (Straz Graniczna)

Public Service Aviation

Medical Aviation (Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe)
Police Aviation (Lotnictwo Policji)

Commercial Aviation

Aeroglobo
Air Polonia [2001-2004]
CentralWings
Eurolot
Polonia Airlines
LOT
White Eagle Aviation

wikipedia: Airlines of Poland
The World’s Airlines: Poland

Private Aviation

To be added.

Industry

Aircraft Manufacturers

LWD
LWS
PWS
PZL
RWD
SZD
WSK-Swidnik

Aircraft Maintenance/Repair Depots

None known.

Airfields

Civil Airports & Airfields

Airports in Poland

Military Air Bases & Airfields

Military Air Bases Listing – to be added.

On Show

Aviation Museums

Lubuskie Muzeum Wojskowe
Muzeum im Orla Bialego
Muzeum Polskiej Techniki Wojskowej
Muzeum Lotnictwa Polskiego
Muzeum Marynarki Wojennej
Muzeum Wojska Polskiego

Airshow Dates

Key Airshow Dates

More Information

Aviation-Related Magazines

Magazines Guide for Poland

Aviation Bibliography

Poland Aviation Bibliography – to be added

Web Links

Aviation Museums Poland

The White Eagles

Poland Key Dates

1795    Poland divided by Russia, Prussia and Austria.
November 1918    Polish state established with German help.
1919    Polish independence recognised by Versailles Treaty.
1920    Peace treaty ends conflict over eastern border.
1 September 1939    Nazi Germany invades and occupies Poland.
1944    Advancing Soviet forces move onto Polish territory.
December 1944    Communist-dominated Polish provisional government created.
July 1945    The Allies formally recognise the Polish provisional government.
January 1947    Hardline Stalinists win Polish elections.
May 1955    Poland joins the Warsaw Pact.
31 August 1980    Gdansk agreement between workers and Polish Government.
December 1981    Polish government declares martial law.
July 1983    Martial law lifted.
June 1989    Solidarity wins multi-party elections.
12 March 1999    Poland joins NATO.

[To be rewritten]

Poland National History


Poland vanished from the map 1795 when Russia, Prussia and Austria divided the country among themselves.
In 1915, during the First World War, the Germans expelled the Russians from Poland and promised Poland independence. On November 1918 Germany installed Jozef Pilsudski as Polish head of state and surrendered control of Poland to him. Polish independence was recognised at Versailles in 1919. However, fighting continued in the east and Polish forces siezed parts of Lithuania, Byelorussia and Ukraine from Russia during 1919 and early 1920. A Soviet offensive came close to capturing Warsaw, but in August 1920 Poland was saved by a Polish counteroffensive aided by France and Britain. A peace treaty was then agreed, defining the eastern frontier. In the west, Danzig (Gdansk) had been made a free city and a ‘polish corridor’ now separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany.

In early 1939, after Hitler’s march into Prague, the Poles accepted guarantees of help from Britain and France in the event of an attack from Germany. The expected attack came on 1 September 1939 and started the Second World War. As the German blitzkrieg devastated the west of Poland, the Red Army (by prior agreement with Germany) swarmed into the east. The Polish goverment fled to England.

When Germany attacked Russia in 1941, the eastern part of Poland also fell under German occupation. The Poles and Russians became uneasy allies against a common enemy. Many Poles were recruited into the Soviet armed forces. Soviet liberation of eastern Poland was achieved in January-June 1944, and in December 1944 a communist dominated provisional government was set up. The liberation of Warsaw did not occur until January 1945. The provisional government was recognised by Britain and America in July 1945, in return for the inclusion of the London exiles and the promise of free elections.
The Allies also approved new frontiers that shifted Poland westwards. The Poles gained German territory as far west as the Oder-Neisse rivers, the free city of Gdansk and most of East Prussia, but lost territory in the east. Most Germans in the former German areas fled or were expelled.

The elections of January 1947 were far from free, and resulted in hardline stalinists taking control. Poland signed the Warsaw Pact Treaty in May 1955. Poland’s declining ecomonic situation during the late 1970’s came to a head in July 1980 when widespread strikes and sit-ins saw the emergence of the ‘Solidarity’ Catholic trade union. The Gdansk agreement of 31 August 1980 established workers rights and a relaxation of censorship. Unfortunately, the economic decline accelerated and industrial disputes became commonplace. In a desperate attempt to restore order and avert Soviet military intervention, martial law was declared in December 1981.

After the lifting of martial law in July 1983, political and economic reforms were initiated. Multi-party elections were held in June 1989, which resulted in a Solidarity dominated government. A rapid conversion to a market economy was undertaken which, although painful, showed signs of success from 1993 onwards. Membership of the Warsaw Pact was dissolved in March 1991. Poland became a probationary member of NATO in July 1997 and full member on 12 March 1999.

[To be rewritten]