Aviation magazine published in 1990. The only known issue is 1/1990. The contents of which comprised F-4 PHANTOM II (with colour profiles); Fleet air arm; w zblizeniu PZL.23 KARAS i PZL P.38 WILK; Samoloty polskie zdobyte przez Luftwaffe. No further information.
This was the Polish-language edition of the UK originated partwork Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. It was published in 240 weekly parts between 1984 and 1988. It is not clear what took the place of the RAF squadron histories series included in the UK edition. Many colour illustrations – photos, profile drawings, foldout colour artwork etc.
Poland is located central Europe. It is bordered by Russia (Kaliningrad) to the north east, Lithuania and Belarus to the east, Ukraine to the south east, Slovakia to the south, Czech Republic to the south west, Germany to the west and the Baltic sea to the north.
Poland is essentially a land of flat or gently rolling countryside, with 60 % of the land area below 200 m (650 ft). In the far south the Sudeten Mountains forms the border with the Czech Republic and the Carpathian Mountains the border with Slovakia. The River Oder defines the northern border with Germany. The total land area is 304,460 sq km (117,552 sq miles).
The Population of 38.7 million (2000 figure) comprises 98% of Polish origin, 1% German and 1% other ethnic groups. Some 93% of the people are Roman Catholic, 2% Eastern Orthodox and 5% other faiths or non-religious. The capital city is Warsaw.
Further National Information
Text to be added on the development of aviation in Poland.
Civil Aircraft Registrations
An incomplete all-time Polish civil aircraft register listing is here.
Military Air Arms
Historical military air arms-
Air Force [1917-1939]
Naval Aviation [1920-1939]
Polish Airmen in Exile [1939-1945]
Central Government Agencies
Public Service Aviation
Medical Aviation (Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe)
Police Aviation (Lotnictwo Policji)
To be added.
Aircraft Maintenance/Repair Depots
Civil Airports & Airfields
Military Air Bases & Airfields
Military Air Bases Listing – to be added.
Magazines Guide for Poland
Poland Aviation Bibliography – to be added
|1795||Poland divided by Russia, Prussia and Austria.|
|November 1918||Polish state established with German help.|
|1919||Polish independence recognised by Versailles Treaty.|
|1920||Peace treaty ends conflict over eastern border.|
|1 September 1939||Nazi Germany invades and occupies Poland.|
|1944||Advancing Soviet forces move onto Polish territory.|
|December 1944||Communist-dominated Polish provisional government created.|
|July 1945||The Allies formally recognise the Polish provisional government.|
|January 1947||Hardline Stalinists win Polish elections.|
|May 1955||Poland joins the Warsaw Pact.|
|31 August 1980||Gdansk agreement between workers and Polish Government.|
|December 1981||Polish government declares martial law.|
|July 1983||Martial law lifted.|
|June 1989||Solidarity wins multi-party elections.|
|12 March 1999||Poland joins NATO.|
Poland vanished from the map 1795 when Russia, Prussia and Austria divided the country among themselves.
In 1915, during the First World War, the Germans expelled the Russians from Poland and promised Poland independence. On November 1918 Germany installed Jozef Pilsudski as Polish head of state and surrendered control of Poland to him. Polish independence was recognised at Versailles in 1919. However, fighting continued in the east and Polish forces siezed parts of Lithuania, Byelorussia and Ukraine from Russia during 1919 and early 1920. A Soviet offensive came close to capturing Warsaw, but in August 1920 Poland was saved by a Polish counteroffensive aided by France and Britain. A peace treaty was then agreed, defining the eastern frontier. In the west, Danzig (Gdansk) had been made a free city and a ‘polish corridor’ now separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany.
In early 1939, after Hitler’s march into Prague, the Poles accepted guarantees of help from Britain and France in the event of an attack from Germany. The expected attack came on 1 September 1939 and started the Second World War. As the German blitzkrieg devastated the west of Poland, the Red Army (by prior agreement with Germany) swarmed into the east. The Polish goverment fled to England.
When Germany attacked Russia in 1941, the eastern part of Poland also fell under German occupation. The Poles and Russians became uneasy allies against a common enemy. Many Poles were recruited into the Soviet armed forces. Soviet liberation of eastern Poland was achieved in January-June 1944, and in December 1944 a communist dominated provisional government was set up. The liberation of Warsaw did not occur until January 1945. The provisional government was recognised by Britain and America in July 1945, in return for the inclusion of the London exiles and the promise of free elections.
The Allies also approved new frontiers that shifted Poland westwards. The Poles gained German territory as far west as the Oder-Neisse rivers, the free city of Gdansk and most of East Prussia, but lost territory in the east. Most Germans in the former German areas fled or were expelled.
The elections of January 1947 were far from free, and resulted in hardline stalinists taking control. Poland signed the Warsaw Pact Treaty in May 1955. Poland’s declining ecomonic situation during the late 1970’s came to a head in July 1980 when widespread strikes and sit-ins saw the emergence of the ‘Solidarity’ Catholic trade union. The Gdansk agreement of 31 August 1980 established workers rights and a relaxation of censorship. Unfortunately, the economic decline accelerated and industrial disputes became commonplace. In a desperate attempt to restore order and avert Soviet military intervention, martial law was declared in December 1981.
After the lifting of martial law in July 1983, political and economic reforms were initiated. Multi-party elections were held in June 1989, which resulted in a Solidarity dominated government. A rapid conversion to a market economy was undertaken which, although painful, showed signs of success from 1993 onwards. Membership of the Warsaw Pact was dissolved in March 1991. Poland became a probationary member of NATO in July 1997 and full member on 12 March 1999.